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Salvation In No Other

July 18, 2014

© OJG and sonofgodwordsoul.com, 2013 Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to OJG and sonofgodwordsoul.com with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

ACTS 4:12

The idea of the Eternal Word of the Lord God saving Israel can be found in Isaiah chapter 45 verse 17 but only in the Aramaic translation of the Old Testament prophetic book of Isaiah. It is my intention to bring this to your attention for the purpose of making known that the idea of the Eternal Word of the Lord saving Israel was not a foreign idea from the gentiles of the Hellenist culture. The Hellenist era didn’t start until 337 B.C. and did not end until 165 B.C.. The dating of the prophetic book of Isaiah as to it being started and completed was between the time from 762 B.C. – 680 B.C.. The Fall of the Northern Kingdom of Samaria dates at 721 B.C. It is about within this time of the fall of the Northern Kingdom to Assyria that the prophet Isaiah writes that the Lord God would save Judah and Israel.The idea of the Logos had not showed up, at least not extensively, in philosophy at the time of the Assyrian era. For instance, Aristotle (384 B.C. – 322 B.C.) wasn’t even born yet (http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/). Nor had Plato (427 B.C. – 347 B.C.) come into being at the time of the dating of Isaiah (http://www.iep.utm.edu/plato/). Neither had Socrates (470 B.C. – 399 B.C.) come into history at the time of the writing of the prophetic book of Isaiah (http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/551948/Socrates). It is true that foreigners settled in the Northern Kingdom of Samaria in 672 B.C.. However, there is no question to the fact that philosophy had absolutely no influence on the Northern Kingdom of Samaria nor on the Kingdom of Judah though there was an influence of the Assyrian culture on those taken captive from the Northern Kingdom of Samaria. Later on in 586 B.C. was the fall of Jerusalem. The rise and fall of the Assyrian Empire was from 1200 B.C. through 612 B.C..

3 King Shalmaneser marched against him, and Hoshea became his vassal and paid him tribute.
4 But the king of Assyria caught Hoshea in an act of treachery: he had sent envoys to King So of Egypt, and he had not paid the tribute to the king of Assyria, as in previous years. And the king of Assyria arrested him and put him in prison.
5 Then the king of Assyria marched against the whole land; he came to Samaria and besieged it for three years.
6 In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria. He deported the Israelites to Assyria and settled them in Halah, at the River Habor, at the River Gozan, and in the towns of Media. (2Ki 17:3-6 TNK)

6 For you have forsaken the ways of your people, O House of Jacob! For they are full of practices from the East, And of soothsaying like the Philistines; They abound in customs of the aliens. (Isa 2:6 TNK)

1 The LORD said to me, “Get yourself a large sheet and write on it in common script ‘For Maher-shalal-hash-baz’;
2 and call reliable witnesses, the priest Uriah and Zechariah son of Jeberechiah, to witness for Me.”
3 I was intimate with the prophetess, and she conceived and bore a son; and the LORD said to me, “Name him Maher-shalal-hash-baz.
4 For before the boy learns to call ‘Father’ and ‘Mother,’ the wealth of Damascus and the spoils of Samaria, and the delights of Rezin and of the son of Remaliah, shall be carried off before the king of Assyria.”
(Isa 8:1-4 TNK)

10 In that day, The stock of Jesse that has remained standing Shall become a standard to peoples — Nations shall seek his counsel And his abode shall be honored.
11 In that day, My Lord will apply His hand again to redeeming the other part of His people from Assyria — as also from Egypt, Pathros, Nubia, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, and the coastlands. (Isa 11:10-11 TNK)

It is sometime between the fall of the Northern Kingdom of Samaria and and the fall of Judah that it can be seen through scripture the influence of the gentile cultures upon the Northern Kingdom of Israel and Judah. There are scriptures that point to the turning of the Hebrews toward foreign gods. The dating for the books of the 2nd Samuel, 1st and 2nd Kings, and 1st and 2nd Chronicles as to its beginning and ending is 1010 B.C. – 586 B.C.. The dating of the prophetic book of Isaiah and Micah as to it being started and completed was between the time from 762 B.C. – 680 B.C.. The dating of the beginning and completion of the prophetic book of Jeremiah is 627 B.C. – 560 B.C.. There is a period of 53 years between Isaiah and Jeremiah but is covered by the books of  2 Sam, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chr.  See below all the scripture references that coincide with the influence of the gentile nations’ religious beliefs on Samaria and Judah.

16 They rejected all the commandments of the LORD their God; they made molten idols for themselves — two calves — and they made a sacred post and they bowed down to all the host of heaven, and they worshiped Baal. (2Ki 17:16 TNK)

3 He rebuilt the shrines that his father Hezekiah had destroyed; he erected altars for Baal and made a sacred post, as King Ahab of Israel had done. He bowed down to all the host of heaven and worshiped them, (2Ki 21:3 TNK)

4 Then the king ordered the high priest Hilkiah, the priests of the second rank, and the guards of the threshold to bring out of the Temple of the LORD all the objects made for Baal and Asherah and all the host of heaven. He burned them outside Jerusalem in the fields of Kidron, and he removed the ashes to Bethel. (2Ki 23:4 TNK)

5 He suppressed the idolatrous priests whom the kings of Judah had appointed to make offerings at the shrines in the towns of Judah and in the environs of Jerusalem, and those who made offerings to Baal, to the sun and moon and constellations — all the host of heaven. (2Ki 23:5 TNK)

21 In that day, the LORD will punish The host of heaven in heaven And the kings of the earth on earth.
22 They shall be gathered in a dungeon As captives are gathered; And shall be locked up in a prison. But after many days they shall be remembered.
23 Then the moon shall be ashamed, And the sun shall be abashed. For the LORD of Hosts will reign On Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, And the Presence will be revealed to His elders. (Isa 24:21-23 TNK)

4 All the host of heaven shall molder. The heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll, And all their host shall wither Like a leaf withering on the vine, Or shriveled fruit on a fig tree.
5 For My sword shall be drunk in the sky; Lo, it shall come down upon Edom, Upon the people I have doomed, To wreak judgment. (Isa 34:4-5 TNK)

2 and exposed to the sun, the moon, and all the host of heaven which they loved and served and followed, to which they turned and bowed down. They shall not be gathered for reburial; they shall become dung upon the face of the earth.
3 And death shall be preferable to life for all that are left of this wicked folk, in all the other places to which I shall banish them — declares the LORD of Hosts. (Jer 8:2-3 TNK)

13 the houses of Jerusalem and the houses of the kings of Judah shall be unclean, like that place Topheth — all the houses on the roofs of which offerings were made to the whole host of heaven and libations were poured out to other gods.” (Jer 19:13 TNK)

1 Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five years in Jerusalem.
2 He did what was displeasing to the LORD, following the abhorrent practices of the nations that the LORD had dispossessed before the Israelites.
3 He rebuilt the shrines that his father Hezekiah had demolished; he erected altars for the Baals and made sacred posts. He bowed down to all the host of heaven and worshiped them,
4 and he built altars to them in the House of the LORD, of which the LORD had said, “My name will be in Jerusalem forever.”
5 He built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the House of the LORD.
6 He consigned his sons to the fire in the Valley of Ben-hinnom, and he practiced soothsaying, divination, and sorcery, and consulted ghosts and familiar spirits; he did much that was displeasing to the LORD in order to vex Him.
7 He placed a sculptured image that he made in the House of God, of which God had said to David and to his son Solomon, “In this House and in Jerusalem, which I chose out of all the tribes of Israel, I will establish My name forever. (2Ch 33:1-7 TNK)

How the Eternal Word of the Lord God would save His people remained to be seen through the scriptures in Isaiah that talk about the Messiah being born from a virgin. It is about this time that the prophet Micah prophecies about the coming of the lord, the coming one or Messiah. Please note the Hebrew word for ancient times is “qedem” or “qedmah.” See the following link to the root word for “qedem” and “qedmah:” (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/hwview.cgi?n=6924). You may cross reference with the following link: (http://biblehub.com/interlinear/micah/5-2.htm). The earliest appearance and use of the Hebrew word “qedem” or “qedmah” is found in Gen 3:24. See the following verses: “He drove the man out, and stationed east of the garden of Eden the cherubim and the fiery ever-turning sword, to guard the way to the tree of life (Gen 3:24 TNK).” “wayügäºreš ´et-hä|´ädäm wayyaš•Kën miqqeºdem lügan-`ëºden ´et-haKKürùbîm wü´ët laºha† haHeºreb hammit•haPPeºket liš•mör ´et-Deºrek• `ëc ha|Hayyîm s (Gen 3:24 BHT)”

1 And you, O Bethlehem of Ephrath, Least among the clans of Judah, From you one shall come forth To rule Israel for Me — One whose origin is from of old, From ancient times.
2 Truly, He will leave them helpless Until she who is to bear has borne; Then the rest of his countrymen Shall return to the children of Israel. (Mic 5:1-2 TNK)

1 wü´aTTâ Bê|t-leºHem ´ep•räºtâ cä`îr li|h•yôt Bü´al•pê yühûdâ mimmükä lî yëcë´ li|h•yôt môšël BüyiS•rä´ël ûmôcä´ötäyw miqqeºdem mîmê `ôläm
2 läkën yiTTünëm `ad-`ët yôlëdâ yäläºdâ wüyeºter ´eHäyw yüšûbûn `al-Bünê yiS•rä´ël (Mic 5:1-2 BHT)

וְאַתָּ֞ה בֵּֽית־לֶ֣חֶם אֶפְרָ֗תָה צָעִיר֙ לִֽהְיוֹת֙ בְּאַלְפֵ֣י יְהוּדָ֔ה מִמְּךָ֙ לִ֣י יֵצֵ֔א לִֽהְי֥וֹת מוֹשֵׁ֖ל בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וּמוֹצָאֹתָ֥יו מִקֶּ֖דֶם מִימֵ֥י עוֹלָֽם׃ (Mic 5:1 WTT)

לָכֵ֣ן יִתְּנֵ֔ם עַד־עֵ֥ת יוֹלֵדָ֖ה יָלָ֑דָה וְיֶ֣תֶר אֶחָ֔יו יְשׁוּב֖וּן עַל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵֽל׃ (Mic 5:2 WTT)

!mi particle preposition ~d,q, noun common masculine singular absolute

Hol7400 ~d,q,
~d,q,: pl. cs. ymed.q; Pr 823: — 1. in front Ps 1395; miqqedem from the front Is 911; — 2. in front = east: in the east Gn 28; eastward Gn 1311; miqqedem from the east Is 26, miqqedem l® east of Gn 324; — 3. east (as a geographical region) Gn 256; b®nê qedem Easterners Gn 291; har haqqedem Eastern Mountains = northern border of Sinai Gn 1030; — 4. temporal: before, earlier, ancient times (adv.) k®qedem as of old Je 3020; miqqedem for the first time Ne 1246, from ancient times Is 4521; — 5. (noun) antiquity, primeval times: °®lœhê qedem God from primeval times = eternal God Dt 3327. (pg 313)
Hol4726 !mi
!mi: extended form yNImi 30 ×, -yNEmi Is 3011; usu. keeps form -!mi before art., rarely otherw.; usu. assimilated, !Bemi, before gutturals & r usu. me, ~d’a’me &c., but tAyh.mi, #Wxmi; before cons. w. shewa vl{v.miK. Gn 3824; before y>: ydeymi, but ynEveY>mi Dn 122; sf. yNIM,ñmi, &’M,ñmi, WNM,mi, hN”M,mi, but ^M.mi, %Memi, also yNImi (4 ×) & yNIm,ñ (6 ×), Whn>m,( Jb 412, aWh-!mi Is 182•7; ~K,mi, ~h,me, hM’heme (2 ×), ~h,n>mi (1 ×), !heme Ez 1647•52: basic meaning out of, away from: — 1. spatial, a) indicates beginning-point of motion, out of, w. y¹ƒ¹° &c. Ex 1242, w. ‘save’ 1S 1735; min-haµœr from (the door-hole) = through SS 54; min-hû° w®h¹l®°â near & far Is 182•7; b) direction of movement, w. °el: mizzan °el-zan Ps 14413 , w. (w®) ±ad Ex 223 Lv 1312, cf. mimm®k¹ w¹hinnâ away fm. you in this direction 1S 2021, mi´´®mœ°l (to) northward Jos 1927, m¢r¹µôq (flee [to]) far away Is 223; c) indicates the place in whose direction ( = where) s.thg is: miqqedem eastward, in the east Gn 28, mibbayit inside Lv 1441; — 2. temporal: a) since, from (the time of): minn®±urîm 1S 122; the beginning-point is included: mi´´®nat hayyœb¢l from the year of jubilee (on) Lv 2717; b) just after: m¢µ¹qîƒ just after awakening Ps 7320, mimmoµ¯r¹t on the very next day Gn 1934; c) after: miqq¢ƒ y¹mîm a few days later Gn 43, miyy¹mîm some time later Ju 114; d) from the time when s.thg happens: mîmê qedem in primeval times Is 3726; w. inf., mibbô° at homecoming Is 231 ; — 3. designates a) the material out of wh. s.thg is made: min-h¹°­d¹mâ Gn 219, niskêhem midd¹m their bloody drink-offerings Ps 164; b) the place of origin: miƒƒor±â from Z. Ju 132; — 4. designates a) cause: m¢rê­µ mayim because of (= at) the scent of water Jb 149, m¢rœb because of (= by) the multitude of Ez 2818; b) originator: m¢hammelek (resulted) from the king = by the king’s will 2S 337, mimmennî ûm¢hem (which word,) mine or theirs Je 4428; c) subj. of active verb becomes obj. of min- w. passive vb.: mimmê hammabbûl (all life shall be cut off) by the waters of a flood Gn 911; — 5. designates position or standard of an assessor: a) q¹‰œntî min I am small, unimportant for (= I am too small for, I am unworthy of) (all the mercies) Gn 3211; rab mimm®k¹ hadderek, journey is too far for you 1K 194; b) in expressions of comparison, more than: µ¹k¹m min, wiser than 1K 511; w. vb., gadd¢l min, make s.thg greater than 1K 147; — 6. designates the logical cause: in consequence of, because of (cf. 4a): miqqœl haqqœr¢° Is 64 , mippî yhwh by Y.’s command 2C 3612; thus mibb®lî mibbiltî, because it is not, fm. lack of; — 7. w. vbs. of fearing, hiding, protecting, warning, from, against: a) y¹r¢° min Ex 3430, str (nif.) min Gn 414 &c.; b) thus, far from > without: mippaµad without fear Jb 219; — 8. part.; a) part of a whole: mikkol-yi´r¹°¢l (men) fm. all Isr. Ex 1825, m¢harb¢h (a few) of many Je 422; b) after adj., superlative: ha‰‰ôb w®hayy¹š¹r mibb®nê the best & fittest of 2K 103; c) the part is omitted: min-´¹r¹yw = one of his princes Dn 115; w. neg., m¢±abdê (not) anyone of the servants = none of 2K 1023; d) indef. part of the whole: midd¹m some of the blood Lv 59; w. °eµ¹d, °aµat, any of the things Lv 42; — 9. min w. inf.: a) m¢°ah­bat from his loving = because he loves Dt 78; b) m¢r®°ôt (eyes) dim from seeing = too dim to see, dim so that he could not see Gn 271; c) temporal: min-šilµô °œt¹m after he sent them away 1C 88; — 10. w. oth. preps.: a) min before oth. prep.: m¢°aµar, mibbên &c., « respective preps.; b) min after oth. prep.: l®min: l®m¢r¹µôq (I will fetch my knowledge) from afar Jb 363; temporal: from long ago Is 3726; l®mibbêt l® on the inner side of Nu 187, l®mittaµat l® underneath 1K 732; l®miyyôm since the days when 2S 711; — 11. Dt 3311 min-y®qûmûn conj. that … not (if true reading). (pg 201)

It is in the verse above that the one prophesied to come was of a time long ago prophesied to come. When was the Messiah prophesied to come? This time goes all the way back to the time when the book of Genesis was written. See the following verse: “I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your offspring and hers; They shall strike at your head, And you shall strike at their heel (Gen 3:15 TNK).” We learn from the prior verse that the Messiah was prophesied to be born of a woman. Would there be a sign of the coming of the Messiah? The answer is yes. Without a sign, the coming time of the Messiah would remain unknown. Without the aid of the stars as signs from the Lord God to help point the Hebrews to the coming time of the Messiah, they would be, in a sense, left in the dark. Surely, that day would come and catch them off guard because the only other prophecy to give them a more exact time is from Mal 3:1. See the following verse: “Behold, I am sending My messenger to clear the way before Me, and the Lord whom you seek shall come to His Temple suddenly. As for the angel of the covenant that you desire, he is already coming (Mal 3:1 TNK).” But what would that sign be? We are told in Isa 7:14 it was a sign of God. We learn from scripture that God sets the stars in heaven as a sign, not to be worshiped, but as a sign. See the following verse: “God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate day from night; they shall serve as signs for the set times — the days and the years (Gen 1:14 TNK);” There were astrologers that worshiped the host of heaven. But there were seekers of the coming Messiah. See the verses below.

1 After Yeshua was born in Beit-Lechem in the land of Y’hudah during the time when Herod was king, Magi from the east came to Yerushalayim
2 and asked, “Where is the newborn King of the Jews? For we saw his star in the east and have come to worship him.” (Mat 2:1-2 CJB)

17 What I see for them is not yet, What I behold will not be soon: A star rises from Jacob, A scepter comes forth from Israel; It smashes the brow of Moab, The foundation of all children of Seth. (Num 24:17 TNK)

17 ´er•´eºnnû wülö´ `aTTâ ´ášûreºnnû wülö´ qärôb Därak• Kôkäb mi|yya`áqöb wüqäm šëºbe† miyyiS•rä´ël ûmäHac Pa´átê mô´äb wüqar•qar Kol-Bünê-šët (Num 24:17 BHT)

אֶרְאֶ֙נּוּ֙ וְלֹ֣א עַתָּ֔ה אֲשׁוּרֶ֖נּוּ וְלֹ֣א קָר֑וֹב דָּרַ֙ךְ כּוֹכָ֜ב מִֽיַּעֲקֹ֗ב וְקָ֥ם שֵׁ֙בֶט֙ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וּמָחַץ֙ פַּאֲתֵ֣י מוֹאָ֔ב וְקַרְקַ֖ר כָּל־בְּנֵי־שֵֽׁת׃ (Num 24:17 WTT)

bk’AK noun common masculine singular absolute

Hol3712 bk’AK
bk’AK: cs. bk;AK; pl. ~ybik’AK, ybek.AK, sf. ~h,ybek.AK: star Gn 116, kôk®bê hašš¹mayim Gn 2212; rœ°š kôk¹bîm pole of the heavens Jb 2212; w. y¹ƒâ come out Ne 415. (pg 152)

 

It is plain to see that the Hebrew people were searching for a sign as revealed in 1st and 2nd Kings, Isaiah and Jeremiah. They were looking up to the heavens and worshipping  what they thought was the star of David, in my opinion. In Mic 5:1 and Num 24:17 mentioned above, it is my belief that one verse compliments the other to give a more complete picture as to the importance of the stars in ancient times. In Mic 5:1 the Messiah is prophesied from the east or of old (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/hwview.cgi?n=6924). In Num 24:17 a star is mentioned as coming from Jacob. It is my belief that the magen star of David may have been worshiped by some but sought after as a sign by others. How else would the Hebrew people know when? I say this because there are three Hebrew letters that make up the word David. These three Hebrew letters are the dalet, vav, and dalet. The form of the dalet and vav dating from 1,000 B.C. of these letters forms what looks like a star with a horizon and a hook in the middle for the star to hang onto. See the below links.

We also learn about what the sign of son of Jesse might possibly have been from Isa 11:10. “And it shall come to pass in that day, that the root of Jesse, that standeth for an ensign of the peoples, unto him shall the nations seek; and his resting-place shall be glorious (Isa 11:10 JPS).” Lets compare the old version of the Tanakh with the newer version of the Tanakh. See the following verse: “In that day, The stock of Jesse that has remained standing Shall become a standard to peoples — Nations shall seek his counsel And his abode shall be honored (Isa 11:10 TNK).” In the old version the son of Jesse will be an “ensign of the peoples” while in the newer version  the son of Jesse will be “a standard to peoples.” See the Hebrew bible transliterated and Westminster Hebrew Old Testament and Westminster Hebrew Morphology with the Holladay entry for “ensign” and “standard.”

10 wühäyâ Bayyôm hahû´ šöºreš yìšay ´ášer `ömëd lünës `ammîm ´ëläyw Gôyìm yid•röºšû wühäy•tâ münùHätô Käbôd P (Isa 11:10 BHT)

10 וְהָיָה֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַה֔וּא שֹׁ֣רֶשׁ יִשַׁ֗י אֲשֶׁ֤ר עֹמֵד֙ לְנֵ֣ס עַמִּ֔ים אֵלָ֖יו גּוֹיִ֣ם יִדְרֹ֑שׁוּ וְהָיְתָ֥ה מְנֻחָת֖וֹ כָּבֽוֹד׃ פ
(Isa 11:10 WTT)

l. particle preposition snE noun common masculine singular construct

Hol5567 snE
snE: sf. ySinI: — 1. signal pole (w. rags tied on) Nu 218, n¹´¹° n¢s Je 46; h¹yâ l®n¢s become a warning Nu 2610; — 2. banner, standard: Is 319, = flag 183; yhwh nissî = name of an altar Ex 1715. (pg 239)
Hol3984 l.
I l.: exc. w. sf., alw. proclitic; before consonant w. shewa, li-; otherw. follows next vowel: la±­mœd, le°®hœb, loµ¯lî; before accented syl., l¹-: l¹bé‰aµ, l¹zeh, w. monosyl.
inf., l¹t¢t (but l®t¢t before gen. Gn 163, also l®µœm lô Hg 16) & l¹TÄtet, but l®tittî; special cases: rmoale, hwhyl;; syncope of h betw. 2 vowels w. art.: l®hammelek > lammelek, l®h¹rœ°š > l¹rœ°š, occasionally w. inf. nif. l®h¢r¹°ôt > l¢r¹°ôt & hif. l®hamrôt > lamrôt; w. sf.: Al (15 ×, acc. to M.T., written al{, also aL{), Hl’ (hl’ Nu 324 Zc 511 Rt 114), ^l. (hk’l. Gn 2737 2S 1822 Is 36), %l'(, f. %l’ & ykil’ñ 2K 42 & SS 213 (Qr %l’), yli, ~h,l’, hM’heñl’ & « Aml’ñ, !h,l’, hN”heñl’ (!hel’ Rt 113), ~k,l’ f. hn”k,ñl’ Ez 1318 (!k,l’ never appears), Wnl’ñ; alw. prep., expressing existence or action towards, over against, or for s.thg or s.one: — 1. spatial: to, towards: movement in a given direction (arrival at a destination not at issue): lammizraµ to the east Ne 326, l®f¹nîm forward Je 724; p¹nâ l®darkô turn to his own way Is 536; — 2. to (expressing arrival at destination): l¹°¹reƒ to the ground Ps 4426, q¹rab laššaµat comes near to the Pit Jb 3322; — 3. temporal: a) until: labbœqer Dt 164, lammœ±¢d 1S 138, l®±ôl¹m forever Gn 322; b) at, in: l®±¢t ±ereb at the time of evening, in the eve. Gn 811, l®rû­µ hayyôm in the cool of the evening Gn 38; l®yôm p®quddâ on the day of … Is 103, lamm¹‰¹r during rain Je 1013; w. inf. l®da±tô when he knows Is 715; c) for a time > for a duration: l®y¹mîm ±ôd šib±â after 7 more days Gn 74, lišn¹tayim after 2 years 2S 1323; — 4. direction (no physical movement): niksaftâ l®bêt you long for the house of Gn 3130; he°®mîn l¹hem feel secure toward them = believe them Je 4014; — 5. therefore w. vbs. of saying, of, about: °imrî lî say of me Gn 2013; l®±ittîm … nibb¹° prophesy of times … Ez 1227; therefore in superscriptions: lann®bî°îm concerning the prophets Je 239; — 6. intention, purpose of an action: office or station to which s.one is appointed (in Eng. into, … to be …, or 2 acc.): ±¹´â l® Gn 122, n¹tan l® 176, ´¹m l® Is 520 all: make s.one s.thg; b¹nâ l® build out into Gn 222; material or obj. into which s.thg is made: ´¹raf l® burn to (lime) Am 21; so sim. l®lœ°-l¹h as if they were not hers Jb 3916; l®°akz¹r (have become) s.thg cruel La 43; — 7. ‘dat. of advantage, disadvantage,’ indicating the pers. for whose (dis)advantage an action is performed: a) ‰ôb lô good w. regard to = good for him, an advantage to him Jb 103; h¢nî­µ l¹kem grant safety for you Dt 1210; so w. vbs. of giving, inflicting, sending, &c.; b) mar l¹h, bitter for her La 14; (means of salvation) for = against: l®µa‰‰¹°t ûl®niddâ against sin & uncleanness Zc 131; c) in the interest of, in favor of: h¹yâ l¹nû was for us Ps 1241; — 8. ‘ethical dat.’: pers. ref. same as subj. of vb., emphasizing the interest or share the subj. has in the action; oft. omitted in Eng. transl.: wayy¢lek lô he went (for himsf.) Ex 1827, watt¢šeb l¹h Gn 2116; oft. w. impv. lek-l®k¹, go Gn 121, b®raµ l®k¹, flee 2743; — 9. expresses belonging (to a given party, group, leader): h¢mmâ l®y¹rob±¹m are of (the people of) Jeroboam 1K 1411, lœ° °ehyeh l¹kem I am not concerned w. you Ho 19; — 10. > ‘dat. of possession’: y¢š lî & °ên lî I (do not) have > (elliptical) lî ‘belongs to me’: lô hayy¹m the sea is his Ps 955; — 11. preparation, disposition, fitness: yôm l®yhwh, a day (prepared) for Y. Is 212, l¹kem l®da±at it is your affair to know Mi 31, lœ° l¹kem it is not your affair Ezr 43, l®yhwh hayšû±â help lies w. Y. Ps 39, l¹°¹d¹m (does not) lie w. man = in the power, disposition of man Je 1023; °al lamm®l¹kîm it is not for kings = kings are not to (drink wine) Pr 314; °ên lî kesef, it is not a matter of (silver) 2S 214; — 12. expresses result, product of an action: wayhî h¹°¹dam l®nefeš µayyâ changed into a living
being Gn 27, wayyiben yhwh °et-haƒƒ¢l¹± l®°iššâ into a woman 222; wayy¢ƒ¢° l®µofšî go out as a free man Ex 212; — 13. genitive-relationship for indef. nouns: b¢n l®yišay a son of Jesse 1S 1618, °œh¢b l®d¹wid a friend of D. 1K 515, mizmôr l®d¹wid Ps 31 & oft.; — 14. thus l® replaces gen. a) after a noun or noun-substitute wh. cannot be (specifically) in the cs.: °aµat l¹hem one of them Ez 16, š®nat š®tayim l®d¹r®y¹weš = in the 2nd year of D. Hg 11, dimkem l®nafšœtêkem your own blood Gn 95; b) instead of 2 gens.: dibrê hayy¹mîm l®malkê of the kings of 1K 1531; — 15. reinforces a prep.: mittaµat l® Gn 17, s¹bîb l® Ex 1613; — 16. expressing w. a noun an adverbial phrase of situation, manner: l¹rœb in abundance Gn 4816, l¹‰œhar in clearness Ex 2410; w. sf. l®°ittî I comfortably Gn 3314, l®baddô he alone 4420; — 17. distributive: a) w. sg. repeated: labbœqer labbœqer, every morning 1C 927; b) w. pl.: lirg¹±îm every moment Is 273; — 18. specification: expresses that in respect to wh. s.thg is affirmed: in (regard to), concerning: l®±œšer (excelled everyone) in riches 1K 1023, l®m¹tôq (like honey) in sweetness Ez 33; lô with ƒiwwâ concerning him Est 32; ? > l® of comparison: ƒ¹±îr lihyôt too little to be Mi 51, ‰ôbîm… l®rê­µ sweeter than… SS 13; — 19. indicates the composition of the whole by sections: according to, by: l®mînô according to its kind Gn 111, ûl®°alfêkem and by your 1000’s 1S 1019 , h¹°¹reƒ l®°ark¹h ûl®roµb¹h the land by ( = in) its length & breadth Gn 1317; — 20. in the later period, like Aram., l® (in relation to, in the direction of) may introduce the logical dir. obj., usu. pers.: w. q¹r¹° Gn 15, l¹qaµ Je 402, ±¹zab 1C 1637 &c.; — 21. in mng. namely, logical apposition: l®malkê namely the kings of Je 118; l®kol-k®lê specifically all the utensils of Ex 2719 ; — 22. introduces cause or reason: for, because of: lifƒ®±î for wounding me Gn 423, l®rekeb Is 369; — 23. w. pass. vbs. introduces the originator of the action (subj. of corresponding active vb.): b¹rûk °abr¹m l®°¢l blessed be A. by God Gn 1419, nibµar l®kœl is preferred by all Je 83; — 24. used w. labels, inscriptions, but best omitted in transl.: l®mah¢r š- Is 81, lîhûdâ Ez 3716; — 25. l® w. inf., expressing: a) purpose: lir°ôt (in order) to see Gn 115, lihyôt °alm¹nôt š®l¹l¹m (different subj.) in order that widows might be their spoil Is 102; b) completion of incomplete verbal ideas: after y¹kœl be able to Gn 451 °¹bâ want to Ex 1027, µ¹f¢ƒ delight to Ju 1323, µ¹dal cease Ps 364; c) a more precise determination of the governing vb., translated adverbially: hê‰îb lir°ôt see rightly Je 112, hirbâ la±­´ôt do much 2K 216, higdîl la±­´ôt do s.thg great Jl 221; d) accompanying circumstance: liš°ôl (know that your wickedness is great) in that you asked 1S 1217; l®l¢dâ (no strength) that one might bring forth (children) Is 373; l¢°môr namely (« I °¹mar 2.); e) h¹yâ w. l® & inf.: wayhî lidrôš he aimed to seek 2C 265, wayhî lisgœr was to be closed Jos 25, w®h¹yâ l®b¹±¢r is to be grazed off Is 55; f) after y¢š: y¢š l®dabb¢r it is necessary to speak 2K 413; y¢š l®yhwh l¹tet l®k¹ Y. can give you 2C 259; g) after lœ°, l® & inf.: lœ° l®hityaµ¢š was not to be registered 1C 51, lœ° l¹ƒ¢°t no one may ( = is to) carry 1C 152; h) l® & inf. as the vb. of an indep. clause, equivalent to saying that s.thg will, must, is to happen: meh la±­´ôt what can one do? 2K 413, ma lla±­´ôt what was there ( = would there have been) to do? Is 54; wayhî haššemeš l¹bô° was setting Gn 1512; l®hakkôt you should have struck 2K 1319; — i) time: lifnôt ±ereb toward evening Gn 2463, lifnôt bœqer Ex 1427. (pg 169)
II l.: emphatic, vocative: is evident e.g. be-
fore impv.: l®hôšî±¢nî do save me! Is 3820; before subj., for emphasis: l®yhwh maginn¢nû yes, Y. is our shield Ps 8919, kîl®keleb µay hû° ‰ôb for certainly a living dog is better … Ec 94; before pred.: bat-±ammî l®°akz¹r is certainly cruel La 43; for reinforcement: l®kol-n¹dîb everyone who is willing 1C 2821; to sum up at the end of a narrative: l®sîµôn … l®±ôg namely S. & Og Ps 13510f; this l® is oft. debatable, or identified w. I l® 20.; written al{ 1S 209 2K 526. (pg 170)

Some questions that should be asked before taking a hard look at Isa 7:14 are:

  1. What is the sign of the Lord?
  2. Is the Lord God’s name in this child prophesied to be born?
  3. Of what significance is the name Immanuel?

This child was to be the sign of the new covenant. The old covenant was represented by the ark of the covenant. But this covenant was to be done away with, according to Jer 3:16. “And when you increase and are fertile in the land, in those days — declares the LORD — men shall no longer speak of the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD, nor shall it come to mind. They shall not mention it, or miss it, or make another (Jer 3:16 TNK).” Because this sign of the covenant was taken away, what would the new sign be?

  • “Just as Moshe lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the Son of Man be lifted up (Joh 3:14 CJB);”
  • “As for me, when I am lifted up from the earth, I will draw everyone to myself (Joh 12:32 CJB).”
  • “”The crowd answered, “We have learned from the Torah that the Messiah remains forever. How is it that you say the Son of Man has to be ‘lifted up’? Who is this ‘Son of Man’?”” (Joh 12:34 CJB)
  • “So Yeshua said, “When you lift up the Son of Man, then you will know that I AM [who I say I am], and that of myself I do nothing, but say only what the Father has taught me. (Joh 8:28 CJB)”

Let us look at this scripture with regard to the eisegesis of it, the Hebrew word “oth.”  See the following link to the Hebrew root word and the Strongs H226 before you write this off as my own interpretation: (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/hwview.cgi?n=226). Yeshua said of Himself that He is the sign. He said He, meaning Himself, must be lifted up just as the sign of Moses was to be lifted up. The Hebrew letters that represent this word are:

1. “Al (Aleph)
The original pictograph for this letter is a picture of an ox head – a representing strength and power from the work performed by the animal. This pictograph also represents a chief or other leader. When two oxen are yoked together for pulling a wagon or plow, one is the older and more experienced one who leads the other. Within the clan, tribe or family the chief or father is seen as the elder who is yoked to the others as the leader and teacher.” (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/ahl_alphabet.html#al)

2. “Waw (Vav)

The original pictograph used in the Early Semitic script is a f, a picture of a tent peg. The tent pegs were made of wood and may have been Y-shaped to prevent the rope from slipping off.

The Modern Hebrew name for this letter is “vav”, a word meaning “peg” or “hook”. This letter is used in Modern Hebrew as a consonant with a “v” sound and as a vowel. If the Modern Hebrew letter appears as וֹ, it is the vowel sound “ow” and if it appears as וּ, it is the vowel sound “uw”. When used as a vowel the ancient pronunciation was also an “ow” or “uw”. In each of the consonant/vowel letters of the Ancient Hebrew language the pronunciation of the consonant is closely related to the pronunciation of the vowel such as the letter “hey” (See above) is “h” and “eh” and the pronunciation of the letter “yud” (See below) is “y” and “iy”. For this reason, it is probable that the original pronunciation of the letter f was with a “w”. In Modern Arabic language, this letter is also pronounced with a “w”. Therefore, the original name of this letter would have been “waw” instead of “vav”.

As the pictograph indicates, this letter represents a peg or hook, which are used for securing something. The meaning of this letter is to add or secure.

This letter is frequently used as a prefix to words to mean “and” in the sense of adding things together.

The Early Semitic f evolved into the f in the Middle Semitic script. This letter then became the f of the Late Semitic script and evolved into the Modern Hebrew ו. The Middle Semitic letter was adopted by the Greeks and the Romans to be the letter F but was dropped from the Greek alphabet later. The Late Semitic form of the letter became the number 9.” (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/ahl_alphabet.html#al)

3. “Taw (Tav)

The Ancient picture t is a type of “mark”, probably of two sticks crossed to mark a place similar to the Egyptian hieroglyph of , a picture of two crossed sticks. This letter has the meanings of mark, sign or signature.

The Modern Hebrew, Arabic and Greek names for this letter is tav (or taw), a Hebrew word meaning, mark. Hebrew, Greek and Arabic agree that the sound for this letter is “t”.

The early pictograph t evolved into t in the Middle Semitic script and continued to evolve into t in the Late Semitic Script. From the middle Semitic script comes the Modern Hebrew ת. The Early Semitic script is the origin of the Greek letter T and the Latin T.” (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/ahl_alphabet.html#al)

The Lord God’s name is certainly in this child. The name Immanuel means God with us. See the following link: (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8086-immanuel). Since God is making this covenant sign with all flesh, it only makes perfect sense that the name of God is in this child. How could God save all Israel and all the gentiles without a covenant as stated in Jeremiah chapter 31 verse 31: “See, a time is coming — declares the LORD — when I will make a new covenant with the House of Israel and the House of Judah (Jer 31:31 TNK).” But, just what is that new covenant?

Let us pay particular attention to Hol entry 246 below. I have highlighted it in red. See below Isa 7:14 Tanakh, Hebrew Bible Transliterated, Westminster Leningrad Hebrew Old Testament and Westminster Hebrew Morphology with Holladay entries starting from right to left.

 14 Assuredly, my Lord will give you a sign of His own accord! Look, the young woman is with child and about to give birth to a son. Let her name him Immanuel. (Isa 7:14 TNK)

14 läkën yiTTën ´ádönäy hû´ läkem ´ôt hinnË hä`al•mâ härâ wüyöleºdet Bën wüqärä´t šümô `immäºnû ´ël (Isa 7:14 BHT)

14 לָ֠כֵן יִתֵּ֙ן אֲדֹנָ֥י ה֛וּא לָכֶ֖ם א֑וֹת הִנֵּ֣ה הָעַלְמָ֗ה הָרָה֙ וְיֹלֶ֣דֶת בֵּ֔ן וְקָרָ֥את שְׁמ֖וֹ עִמָּ֥נוּ אֵֽל׃ (Isa 7:14 WTT)

l. particle preposition !Ke particle adverb homonym 2

Hol3818 !Ke
I !Ke: pl. ~ynIKe: — 1. rightly, justly, aptly 1S 2317; — 2. morally: a) upright, honest Gn 4211; b) w. ±¹´â do right Ec 810, w. dibber be right Ex 1029; c) lœ°-k¢n = wrong Is 2310; w. ±¹´â 2K 79; untrue (words) 2K 174; — 3. confirming: of course Jos 44.
(pg 160)
II !Ke (ca. 340 ×), -!K, Gn 4410 Jb 527; < I; adv.: — 1. so, thus (= as has just been said) (120 ×) Gn 17; lœ° k¢n Ex 1014; — 2. so, thus (= as is now to be said) Gn 2926; — 3. just so, (just) the same way Ex 711; — 4. so in var. extended mngs.: = therefore, that is why Ps 635; = so much 1K 1012 ; = something like it 1K 1020; — 5. as … so: a) k® … k¢n Dt 820 (60 ×); b) ka°­šer … k¢n Gn 4113 (66 ×); c) k®mô … kên Is 2617; — 6. just as … so: k®kœl … k¢n 2S 717, k®kœl °­šer … k¢n Gn 622 (10 ×); — 7. so … as: a) k¢n … k® Ex 1014; b) k¢n … ka°­šer Gn 185; — 8. temporal: then: a) unaccented: Ps 619; b) °aµ­rê-k¢n (« °aµar II 3) afterwards Gn 65 & oft.; c) b®k¢n so then Ec 810; d) ±ad-k¢n until then Ne 216; — 9. var.: a) « l¹k¢n & ±al-k¢n; b) l¹k¢n = lœ° k¢n ? Gn 415; c) as continuation, k¢n … w®k¢n Nu 234. (pg 160)

Hol4127 !kel’
!kel’ (188 ×): I l. + II !Ke: — 1. therefore Ex 66 (ca. 80 ×); l¹k¢n kœh °¹mar yhwh 2K 1932 (66 ×, 22 × Je), w®l¹k¢n 1S 314; many similar phrases, esp. in prophetic contexts; — 2. for this Gn 3015 Is 617 †; — 3. indeed, all right (II l.) 1S 282 Je 233 † (oth.: 1.). (pg 177)
Hol3984 l.
I l.: exc. w. sf., alw. proclitic; before consonant w. shewa, li-; otherw. follows next vowel: la±­mœd, le°®hœb, loµ¯lî; before accented syl., l¹-: l¹bé‰aµ, l¹zeh, w. monosyl.
inf., l¹t¢t (but l®t¢t before gen. Gn 163, also l®µœm lô Hg 16) & l¹TÄtet, but l®tittî; special cases: rmoale, hwhyl;; syncope of h betw. 2 vowels w. art.: l®hammelek > lammelek, l®h¹rœ°š > l¹rœ°š, occasionally w. inf. nif. l®h¢r¹°ôt > l¢r¹°ôt & hif. l®hamrôt > lamrôt; w. sf.: Al (15 ×, acc. to M.T., written al{, also aL{), Hl’ (hl’ Nu 324 Zc 511 Rt 114), ^l. (hk’l. Gn 2737 2S 1822 Is 36), %l'(, f. %l’ & ykil’ñ 2K 42 & SS 213 (Qr %l’), yli, ~h,l’, hM’heñl’ & « Aml’ñ, !h,l’, hN”heñl’ (!hel’ Rt 113), ~k,l’ f. hn”k,ñl’ Ez 1318 (!k,l’ never appears), Wnl’ñ; alw. prep., expressing existence or action towards, over against, or for s.thg or s.one: — 1. spatial: to, towards: movement in a given direction (arrival at a destination not at issue): lammizraµ to the east Ne 326, l®f¹nîm forward Je 724; p¹nâ l®darkô turn to his own way Is 536; — 2. to (expressing arrival at destination): l¹°¹reƒ to the ground Ps 4426, q¹rab laššaµat comes near to the Pit Jb 3322; — 3. temporal: a) until: labbœqer Dt 164, lammœ±¢d 1S 138, l®±ôl¹m forever Gn 322; b) at, in: l®±¢t ±ereb at the time of evening, in the eve. Gn 811, l®rû­µ hayyôm in the cool of the evening Gn 38; l®yôm p®quddâ on the day of … Is 103, lamm¹‰¹r during rain Je 1013; w. inf. l®da±tô when he knows Is 715; c) for a time > for a duration: l®y¹mîm ±ôd šib±â after 7 more days Gn 74, lišn¹tayim after 2 years 2S 1323; — 4. direction (no physical movement): niksaftâ l®bêt you long for the house of Gn 3130; he°®mîn l¹hem feel secure toward them = believe them Je 4014; — 5. therefore w. vbs. of saying, of, about: °imrî lî say of me Gn 2013; l®±ittîm … nibb¹° prophesy of times … Ez 1227; therefore in superscriptions: lann®bî°îm concerning the prophets Je 239; — 6. intention, purpose of an action: office or station to which s.one is appointed (in Eng. into, … to be …, or 2 acc.): ±¹´â l® Gn 122, n¹tan l® 176, ´¹m l® Is 520 all: make s.one s.thg; b¹nâ l® build out into Gn 222; material or obj. into which s.thg is made: ´¹raf l® burn to (lime) Am 21; so sim. l®lœ°-l¹h as if they were not hers Jb 3916; l®°akz¹r (have become) s.thg cruel La 43; — 7. ‘dat. of advantage, disadvantage,’ indicating the pers. for whose (dis)advantage an action is performed: a) ‰ôb lô good w. regard to = good for him, an advantage to him Jb 103; h¢nî­µ l¹kem grant safety for you Dt 1210; so w. vbs. of giving, inflicting, sending, &c.; b) mar l¹h, bitter for her La 14; (means of salvation) for = against: l®µa‰‰¹°t ûl®niddâ against sin & uncleanness Zc 131; c) in the interest of, in favor of: h¹yâ l¹nû was for us Ps 1241; — 8. ‘ethical dat.’: pers. ref. same as subj. of vb., emphasizing the interest or share the subj. has in the action; oft. omitted in Eng. transl.: wayy¢lek lô he went (for himsf.) Ex 1827, watt¢šeb l¹h Gn 2116; oft. w. impv. lek-l®k¹, go Gn 121, b®raµ l®k¹, flee 2743; — 9. expresses belonging (to a given party, group, leader): h¢mmâ l®y¹rob±¹m are of (the people of) Jeroboam 1K 1411, lœ° °ehyeh l¹kem I am not concerned w. you Ho 19; — 10. > ‘dat. of possession’: y¢š lî & °ên lî I (do not) have > (elliptical) lî ‘belongs to me’: lô hayy¹m the sea is his Ps 955; — 11. preparation, disposition, fitness: yôm l®yhwh, a day (prepared) for Y. Is 212, l¹kem l®da±at it is your affair to know Mi 31, lœ° l¹kem it is not your affair Ezr 43, l®yhwh hayšû±â help lies w. Y. Ps 39, l¹°¹d¹m (does not) lie w. man = in the power, disposition of man Je 1023; °al lamm®l¹kîm it is not for kings = kings are not to (drink wine) Pr 314; °ên lî kesef, it is not a matter of (silver) 2S 214; — 12. expresses result, product of an action: wayhî h¹°¹dam l®nefeš µayyâ changed into a living
being Gn 27, wayyiben yhwh °et-haƒƒ¢l¹± l®°iššâ into a woman 222; wayy¢ƒ¢° l®µofšî go out as a free man Ex 212; — 13. genitive-relationship for indef. nouns: b¢n l®yišay a son of Jesse 1S 1618, °œh¢b l®d¹wid a friend of D. 1K 515, mizmôr l®d¹wid Ps 31 & oft.; — 14. thus l® replaces gen. a) after a noun or noun-substitute wh. cannot be (specifically) in the cs.: °aµat l¹hem one of them Ez 16, š®nat š®tayim l®d¹r®y¹weš = in the 2nd year of D. Hg 11, dimkem l®nafšœtêkem your own blood Gn 95; b) instead of 2 gens.: dibrê hayy¹mîm l®malkê of the kings of 1K 1531; — 15. reinforces a prep.: mittaµat l® Gn 17, s¹bîb l® Ex 1613; — 16. expressing w. a noun an adverbial phrase of situation, manner: l¹rœb in abundance Gn 4816, l¹‰œhar in clearness Ex 2410; w. sf. l®°ittî I comfortably Gn 3314, l®baddô he alone 4420; — 17. distributive: a) w. sg. repeated: labbœqer labbœqer, every morning 1C 927; b) w. pl.: lirg¹±îm every moment Is 273; — 18. specification: expresses that in respect to wh. s.thg is affirmed: in (regard to), concerning: l®±œšer (excelled everyone) in riches 1K 1023, l®m¹tôq (like honey) in sweetness Ez 33; lô with ƒiwwâ concerning him Est 32; ? > l® of comparison: ƒ¹±îr lihyôt too little to be Mi 51, ‰ôbîm… l®rê­µ sweeter than… SS 13; — 19. indicates the composition of the whole by sections: according to, by: l®mînô according to its kind Gn 111, ûl®°alfêkem and by your 1000’s 1S 1019 , h¹°¹reƒ l®°ark¹h ûl®roµb¹h the land by ( = in) its length & breadth Gn 1317; — 20. in the later period, like Aram., l® (in relation to, in the direction of) may introduce the logical dir. obj., usu. pers.: w. q¹r¹° Gn 15, l¹qaµ Je 402, ±¹zab 1C 1637 &c.; — 21. in mng. namely, logical apposition: l®malkê namely the kings of Je 118; l®kol-k®lê specifically all the utensils of Ex 2719 ; — 22. introduces cause or reason: for, because of: lifƒ®±î for wounding me Gn 423, l®rekeb Is 369; — 23. w. pass. vbs. introduces the originator of the action (subj. of corresponding active vb.): b¹rûk °abr¹m l®°¢l blessed be A. by God Gn 1419, nibµar l®kœl is preferred by all Je 83; — 24. used w. labels, inscriptions, but best omitted in transl.: l®mah¢r š- Is 81, lîhûdâ Ez 3716; — 25. l® w. inf., expressing: a) purpose: lir°ôt (in order) to see Gn 115, lihyôt °alm¹nôt š®l¹l¹m (different subj.) in order that widows might be their spoil Is 102; b) completion of incomplete verbal ideas: after y¹kœl be able to Gn 451 °¹bâ want to Ex 1027, µ¹f¢ƒ delight to Ju 1323, µ¹dal cease Ps 364; c) a more precise determination of the governing vb., translated adverbially: hê‰îb lir°ôt see rightly Je 112, hirbâ la±­´ôt do much 2K 216, higdîl la±­´ôt do s.thg great Jl 221; d) accompanying circumstance: liš°ôl (know that your wickedness is great) in that you asked 1S 1217; l®l¢dâ (no strength) that one might bring forth (children) Is 373; l¢°môr namely (« I °¹mar 2.); e) h¹yâ w. l® & inf.: wayhî lidrôš he aimed to seek 2C 265, wayhî lisgœr was to be closed Jos 25, w®h¹yâ l®b¹±¢r is to be grazed off Is 55; f) after y¢š: y¢š l®dabb¢r it is necessary to speak 2K 413; y¢š l®yhwh l¹tet l®k¹ Y. can give you 2C 259; g) after lœ°, l® & inf.: lœ° l®hityaµ¢š was not to be registered 1C 51, lœ° l¹ƒ¢°t no one may ( = is to) carry 1C 152; h) l® & inf. as the vb. of an indep. clause, equivalent to saying that s.thg will, must, is to happen: meh la±­´ôt what can one do? 2K 413, ma lla±­´ôt what was there ( = would there have been) to do? Is 54; wayhî haššemeš l¹bô° was setting Gn 1512; l®hakkôt you should have struck 2K 1319; — i) time: lifnôt ±ereb toward evening Gn 2463, lifnôt bœqer Ex 1427. (pg 169)
II l.: emphatic, vocative: is evident e.g. be-
fore impv.: l®hôšî±¢nî do save me! Is 3820; before subj., for emphasis: l®yhwh maginn¢nû yes, Y. is our shield Ps 8919, kîl®keleb µay hû° ‰ôb for certainly a living dog is better … Ec 94; before pred.: bat-±ammî l®°akz¹r is certainly cruel La 43; for reinforcement: l®kol-n¹dîb everyone who is willing 1C 2821; to sum up at the end of a narrative: l®sîµôn … l®±ôg namely S. & Og Ps 13510f; this l® is oft. debatable, or identified w. I l® 20.; written al{ 1S 209 2K 526. (pg 170)

!tn verb qal imperfect 3rd person masculine singular

Hol5739 !t;n”
!t;n”: qal (1900 ×): pf. Œn, !t'(n”, hn”t.n”), hn”t'(n”, (hÀT’t;n”, T.t;n” (yT.t;n” Ez 1618 ), yTit'(n”, Wnt.n”) (WNt'(n” Ez 2719), ~T,t;n>, WNt;n”, sf. Ant’n>, ^n>t'(n>, ynIn”)t’n>, wyTit;n>, WhyTit;n>; impf. !TeYIw:, -!T,yI, hn”Te(a,w”, !TenI (!T;nI Ju 165), sf. WNn<T.yI, ^n>T,yI, AnT.Ti Ez 2229; impv. (-À!Te, -!T,, ynIT., ynITe(, WnT., sf. WhnET., ~nET., hN”n<T.; inf. !ton>, -!t’n>, but usu. tTe, ttel’, ¿-Àtt,l'(ñ-, !T,til., ATTi, yTiTi, WnTeTi, abs. !¿AÀton”; pt. !te¿AÀnO, sf. ^n>t,nO, pass. !Wtn”, ~ynIWtn>, ~ynItun>, tAntun>; qal pass. « hof.: — 1. give, w. l® to Gn 36, °el 187, = deliver Ex 518 , in trade Pr 3124; — 2. w. 2 acc. present s. one w. s.thg Jos 1519, = let s.one have 1K 1826, = sell Gn 234, — cause (trouble) Pr 1010, = offer (a sign) Dt 132, = grant (a request) 1S 117, = produce (fruit) Ps 13; — 3. offer (sacrifice) Ex 3014; pt. pass. w. l® allotted to Nu 39; — 4. n¹tan l®°iššâ give in marriage Gn 304; n¹tan lifnê lay before Je 4410; n¹tan ±im associate w. Gn 312; n¹tan l® repay Je 1710; n¹tan bakkesef turn (s.thg) into money Dt 1425; n¹tan b® give away for (a price) Jl 43; — 5. w. šibtô Ex 2119 « yšb 3 b; w. y¹d « y¹d 2 a; w. š®kobtô &c. Lv 1820 &c. « *š®kobet; — 6. mî yitt¢n who will give? = if only there were…! &c.: mî yitt¢n ±ereb if only it were evening Dt 2867, mî-yitt®n¢nî oh, if only I had Je 91, mî yitt¢n mût¢nû if only we were dead Ex 163 &c.; otherw. Jb 144 who shall bring (= knows) one who?; — 7. pass on (knowledge) Pr 99, announce (a sign) 1K 133; — 8. w. acc. + l® & inf. allow, permit Gn 206; yitt®n¢nî h¹š¢b rûµî let me catch my breath Jb 918; = n¹tan l® + l® & inf. Est 811; n¹tan b®yad… + l® & inf. commission s.one to 1C 167; — 9. w. l® surrender, deliver La 330; n¹tan b®kaf hand over to Ju 613, = b®yad 47, = n¹tan lifnê (obj. land) Dt 231; n¹tan libbô/nafšô, w. l® & inf. devote onesf. to 1C 2219; — 10. n¹tan rêµô give out fragrance SS 112, n¹tan ±ênô give out luster Pr 2331; n¹tan tœf beat the timbrel Ps 813; — 11. n¹tan p¹n¹yw °el turn one’s face to Dn 93; n¹tan rœ°š w. l® & inf. take it into one’s head to Ne 917, (:: abs. n¹tan rœ°š choose a leader Nu 144); n¹tan libbô l® pay attention to Ec 721 (cf. 9.); n¹tan tiflâ l® put blame on Jb 122; — 12. set, put, lay Gn 117; n¹tan ±al-pîhem put s.thg in their
mouth Mi 35; n¹tan °el-l¢b put into s.one’s heart = inspire s.one Ne 75, = b®l¢b Ezr 722; n¹tan °el-libbô take to heart Ec 72; n¹tan nœkaµ p¹n¹yw set before onesf. = look w. pleasure on Ez 143; = set up Lv 261; = bring (in) Gn 4148; lay (fire) = set (fire) Ez 308; = direct (shock of battering rams against) Ez 269; = add to Lv 215; n¹tan b®qôlô ±al lift one’s voice against Je 128; = hold (a meeting) Ne 57; n¹tan tô±¢bâ ±al lay (punishment for) an abomination on Ez 73; n¹tan d¹m b® bring blood(guilt) on Dt 218, = pour out blood 1K 25, so rain Ps 10532; n¹tan taµat place s.one instead of 1K 235; — 13. w. 2 acc. make s.one (to be) s.thg: °ab-h­môn n®tattîk¹ (to be) the father of a multitude Gn 175, so w. 1st obj. thg. Ps 1833; w. acc. & l®, n®tattîw l®gôy Gn 1720; n¹tan l®-°¹lâ make s.one become a formula for cursing Nu 521; w. acc. & k® 1K 1027; n¹tan l®raµ­mîm lifnê let s.one find compassion 1K 850.

nif. (40×): pf. !T;nI, hn”T.nI, hn”T'(nI (Ne 1310, 3. pl. f.), ~T,T;nI, WNT’nI; impf. !teN”yI, !t,N”òyI Lv 2420 2S 216 Kt; inf. !teN”hi, !Atn”hi; pt. !T’nI: — 1. be given Ex 516; be given out, issued (law) Est 314; be given into s.one’s hand = power Gn 92 & oft.; nitt®nâ l®°iššâ be given in marriage Gn 3814; w. ±al-yad be delivered (money) 2K 227; be given (l®, as [a heritage]) Ez 1115; w. l® be assigned (to s.one) 2C 213; — 2. be given away (like grass) Is 5112; be given over (to death) Ez 3114, be made = become (l®) Ez 4711; w. ±al be laid on Dn 812; — 3. var.: be granted Est 213, be guaranteed 53; be laid, provided for Ez 3223.

(trad. hof.) qal pass: impf. !T;yU: be given 2K 517; yuttan (m.) l®°iššâ (w. °¢t!) be given in marriage 1K 221; w. ±al, be put on Lv 1138. (pg 250)

aWh pronoun independent 3rd person masculine singular

Hol1964 aWh
aWh: f. ayhi; pl. m. ~he, hM’he, f. hN”he; for sf. forms, Qr-Kt problem, « gramm.: — 1. pron. 3rd sg. he, she, it, they, hû° w®°ištô he & his wife Gn 131; — 2. demonstr. pron. that: a) hû° y¹m hammelaµ that is … Gn 143; introduces glosses Gn 211-13; b) hû° °­šer dibber that is what Y. said Lv 103; — 3. summarizing: hû° µayyéka that constitutes life Dt 3020; — 4. hû° emphasizes the subj. hû° hahœl¢k it is he who goes Gn 214; oft. w. numbers, š®tayim h¢nnâ the two Is 5119; — 5. as subj. w. interr.: mâ hî° what is that? Gn 2315, mî hû° zeh who is it? Ps 2410; — 6. in appos., restrictive: hall¢wî hû° only the Levite Nu 1823; — 7. preceding the noun, precisely, or the like: hû° hallaylâ hazzeh this very night Ex 1242; — 8. w. pron., expresses identity: °­nî hû° it is I Is 526; — 9. the same: š¹m hû° there it is the same Jb 319; — 10. hahû°, hahî° w. nouns, that (adj.), h¹°îš hahû° Jb 11; — 11. as ‘copula,’ ƒaddîq hû° yhwh Y. is righteous La 118; — 12. in n. pers. as confession, « °­bîhû°, °®lîhû(°). (pg 77)

l. particle preposition suffix 2nd person masculine plural

Hol3984 l.
I l.: exc. w. sf., alw. proclitic; before consonant w. shewa, li-; otherw. follows next vowel: la±­mœd, le°®hœb, loµ¯lî; before accented syl., l¹-: l¹bé‰aµ, l¹zeh, w. monosyl.
inf., l¹t¢t (but l®t¢t before gen. Gn 163, also l®µœm lô Hg 16) & l¹TÄtet, but l®tittî; special cases: rmoale, hwhyl;; syncope of h betw. 2 vowels w. art.: l®hammelek > lammelek, l®h¹rœ°š > l¹rœ°š, occasionally w. inf. nif. l®h¢r¹°ôt > l¢r¹°ôt & hif. l®hamrôt > lamrôt; w. sf.: Al (15 ×, acc. to M.T., written al{, also aL{), Hl’ (hl’ Nu 324 Zc 511 Rt 114), ^l. (hk’l. Gn 2737 2S 1822 Is 36), %l'(, f. %l’ & ykil’ñ 2K 42 & SS 213 (Qr %l’), yli, ~h,l’, hM’heñl’ & « Aml’ñ, !h,l’, hN”heñl’ (!hel’ Rt 113), ~k,l’ f. hn”k,ñl’ Ez 1318 (!k,l’ never appears), Wnl’ñ; alw. prep., expressing existence or action towards, over against, or for s.thg or s.one: — 1. spatial: to, towards: movement in a given direction (arrival at a destination not at issue): lammizraµ to the east Ne 326, l®f¹nîm forward Je 724; p¹nâ l®darkô turn to his own way Is 536; — 2. to (expressing arrival at destination): l¹°¹reƒ to the ground Ps 4426, q¹rab laššaµat comes near to the Pit Jb 3322; — 3. temporal: a) until: labbœqer Dt 164, lammœ±¢d 1S 138, l®±ôl¹m forever Gn 322; b) at, in: l®±¢t ±ereb at the time of evening, in the eve. Gn 811, l®rû­µ hayyôm in the cool of the evening Gn 38; l®yôm p®quddâ on the day of … Is 103, lamm¹‰¹r during rain Je 1013; w. inf. l®da±tô when he knows Is 715; c) for a time > for a duration: l®y¹mîm ±ôd šib±â after 7 more days Gn 74, lišn¹tayim after 2 years 2S 1323; — 4. direction (no physical movement): niksaftâ l®bêt you long for the house of Gn 3130; he°®mîn l¹hem feel secure toward them = believe them Je 4014; — 5. therefore w. vbs. of saying, of, about: °imrî lî say of me Gn 2013; l®±ittîm … nibb¹° prophesy of times … Ez 1227; therefore in superscriptions: lann®bî°îm concerning the prophets Je 239; — 6. intention, purpose of an action: office or station to which s.one is appointed (in Eng. into, … to be …, or 2 acc.): ±¹´â l® Gn 122, n¹tan l® 176, ´¹m l® Is 520 all: make s.one s.thg; b¹nâ l® build out into Gn 222; material or obj. into which s.thg is made: ´¹raf l® burn to (lime) Am 21; so sim. l®lœ°-l¹h as if they were not hers Jb 3916; l®°akz¹r (have become) s.thg cruel La 43; — 7. ‘dat. of advantage, disadvantage,’ indicating the pers. for whose (dis)advantage an action is performed: a) ‰ôb lô good w. regard to = good for him, an advantage to him Jb 103; h¢nî­µ l¹kem grant safety for you Dt 1210; so w. vbs. of giving, inflicting, sending, &c.; b) mar l¹h, bitter for her La 14; (means of salvation) for = against: l®µa‰‰¹°t ûl®niddâ against sin & uncleanness Zc 131; c) in the interest of, in favor of: h¹yâ l¹nû was for us Ps 1241; — 8. ‘ethical dat.’: pers. ref. same as subj. of vb., emphasizing the interest or share the subj. has in the action; oft. omitted in Eng. transl.: wayy¢lek lô he went (for himsf.) Ex 1827, watt¢šeb l¹h Gn 2116; oft. w. impv. lek-l®k¹, go Gn 121, b®raµ l®k¹, flee 2743; — 9. expresses belonging (to a given party, group, leader): h¢mmâ l®y¹rob±¹m are of (the people of) Jeroboam 1K 1411, lœ° °ehyeh l¹kem I am not concerned w. you Ho 19; — 10. > ‘dat. of possession’: y¢š lî & °ên lî I (do not) have > (elliptical) lî ‘belongs to me’: lô hayy¹m the sea is his Ps 955; — 11. preparation, disposition, fitness: yôm l®yhwh, a day (prepared) for Y. Is 212, l¹kem l®da±at it is your affair to know Mi 31, lœ° l¹kem it is not your affair Ezr 43, l®yhwh hayšû±â help lies w. Y. Ps 39, l¹°¹d¹m (does not) lie w. man = in the power, disposition of man Je 1023; °al lamm®l¹kîm it is not for kings = kings are not to (drink wine) Pr 314; °ên lî kesef, it is not a matter of (silver) 2S 214; — 12. expresses result, product of an action: wayhî h¹°¹dam l®nefeš µayyâ changed into a living
being Gn 27, wayyiben yhwh °et-haƒƒ¢l¹± l®°iššâ into a woman 222; wayy¢ƒ¢° l®µofšî go out as a free man Ex 212; — 13. genitive-relationship for indef. nouns: b¢n l®yišay a son of Jesse 1S 1618, °œh¢b l®d¹wid a friend of D. 1K 515, mizmôr l®d¹wid Ps 31 & oft.; — 14. thus l® replaces gen. a) after a noun or noun-substitute wh. cannot be (specifically) in the cs.: °aµat l¹hem one of them Ez 16, š®nat š®tayim l®d¹r®y¹weš = in the 2nd year of D. Hg 11, dimkem l®nafšœtêkem your own blood Gn 95; b) instead of 2 gens.: dibrê hayy¹mîm l®malkê of the kings of 1K 1531; — 15. reinforces a prep.: mittaµat l® Gn 17, s¹bîb l® Ex 1613; — 16. expressing w. a noun an adverbial phrase of situation, manner: l¹rœb in abundance Gn 4816, l¹‰œhar in clearness Ex 2410; w. sf. l®°ittî I comfortably Gn 3314, l®baddô he alone 4420; — 17. distributive: a) w. sg. repeated: labbœqer labbœqer, every morning 1C 927; b) w. pl.: lirg¹±îm every moment Is 273; — 18. specification: expresses that in respect to wh. s.thg is affirmed: in (regard to), concerning: l®±œšer (excelled everyone) in riches 1K 1023, l®m¹tôq (like honey) in sweetness Ez 33; lô with ƒiwwâ concerning him Est 32; ? > l® of comparison: ƒ¹±îr lihyôt too little to be Mi 51, ‰ôbîm… l®rê­µ sweeter than… SS 13; — 19. indicates the composition of the whole by sections: according to, by: l®mînô according to its kind Gn 111, ûl®°alfêkem and by your 1000’s 1S 1019 , h¹°¹reƒ l®°ark¹h ûl®roµb¹h the land by ( = in) its length & breadth Gn 1317; — 20. in the later period, like Aram., l® (in relation to, in the direction of) may introduce the logical dir. obj., usu. pers.: w. q¹r¹° Gn 15, l¹qaµ Je 402, ±¹zab 1C 1637 &c.; — 21. in mng. namely, logical apposition: l®malkê namely the kings of Je 118; l®kol-k®lê specifically all the utensils of Ex 2719 ; — 22. introduces cause or reason: for, because of: lifƒ®±î for wounding me Gn 423, l®rekeb Is 369; — 23. w. pass. vbs. introduces the originator of the action (subj. of corresponding active vb.): b¹rûk °abr¹m l®°¢l blessed be A. by God Gn 1419, nibµar l®kœl is preferred by all Je 83; — 24. used w. labels, inscriptions, but best omitted in transl.: l®mah¢r š- Is 81, lîhûdâ Ez 3716; — 25. l® w. inf., expressing: a) purpose: lir°ôt (in order) to see Gn 115, lihyôt °alm¹nôt š®l¹l¹m (different subj.) in order that widows might be their spoil Is 102; b) completion of incomplete verbal ideas: after y¹kœl be able to Gn 451 °¹bâ want to Ex 1027, µ¹f¢ƒ delight to Ju 1323, µ¹dal cease Ps 364; c) a more precise determination of the governing vb., translated adverbially: hê‰îb lir°ôt see rightly Je 112, hirbâ la±­´ôt do much 2K 216, higdîl la±­´ôt do s.thg great Jl 221; d) accompanying circumstance: liš°ôl (know that your wickedness is great) in that you asked 1S 1217; l®l¢dâ (no strength) that one might bring forth (children) Is 373; l¢°môr namely (« I °¹mar 2.); e) h¹yâ w. l® & inf.: wayhî lidrôš he aimed to seek 2C 265, wayhî lisgœr was to be closed Jos 25, w®h¹yâ l®b¹±¢r is to be grazed off Is 55; f) after y¢š: y¢š l®dabb¢r it is necessary to speak 2K 413; y¢š l®yhwh l¹tet l®k¹ Y. can give you 2C 259; g) after lœ°, l® & inf.: lœ° l®hityaµ¢š was not to be registered 1C 51, lœ° l¹ƒ¢°t no one may ( = is to) carry 1C 152; h) l® & inf. as the vb. of an indep. clause, equivalent to saying that s.thg will, must, is to happen: meh la±­´ôt what can one do? 2K 413, ma lla±­´ôt what was there ( = would there have been) to do? Is 54; wayhî haššemeš l¹bô° was setting Gn 1512; l®hakkôt you should have struck 2K 1319; — i) time: lifnôt ±ereb toward evening Gn 2463, lifnôt bœqer Ex 1427. (pg 169)
II l.: emphatic, vocative: is evident e.g. be-
fore impv.: l®hôšî±¢nî do save me! Is 3820; before subj., for emphasis: l®yhwh maginn¢nû yes, Y. is our shield Ps 8919, kîl®keleb µay hû° ‰ôb for certainly a living dog is better … Ec 94; before pred.: bat-±ammî l®°akz¹r is certainly cruel La 43; for reinforcement: l®kol-n¹dîb everyone who is willing 1C 2821; to sum up at the end of a narrative: l®sîµôn … l®±ôg namely S. & Og Ps 13510f; this l® is oft. debatable, or identified w. I l® 20.; written al{ 1S 209 2K 526. (pg 170)

tAa noun common both singular absolute

Hol246 tAa
I tAa (80 ×), tao; pl. t¿AÀtoao, sf. wyt’¿AÀtoao; masc., rarely fem. (e.g. Gn 912•17): sign: a) (distinguishing) mark Gn 415; b) (battle) banner? Nu 22 ; c) sign to bring to mind (covenant) obligation Gn 912; d) memorial Ex 139; e) sign guaranteeing afterwards the dependability of assertion Ex 312; f) miraculous sign, showing s.one’s power Ex 48; g) omen, announcing s.thg to come Gn 114; h) warning, deterring example Nu 173.

(pg 8)
II — tAa & — tao w. suffixes, « I tae. (pg 8)

hNEhi particle interjection

Hol2046 hNEhi
hNEhi (436 ×, hNEhiw> 343 ×): demonstr. interj.; aN” hN<hi Gn 192; ynIn>hi, ynIN:)hi, ^N>hi, hk’N>hi, %N”hi, *WhNEhi Je 183 Kt (Qr aWh-hNEhi) ANhi Nu 2317, Jb 26, 1C 1125 †, Wnn>hi, WnN:)hi, ~k,N>hi, ~N”hi; w. ‘nûn energic’ yNIN<hi, &amp;’N<hi, WNN<òhi; also ykinOa’ hNEhi &c.; behold: — 1. stresses the following word w®hinn¢h tannûr Gn 1517; — 2. hin®ni answer of a person called: here I am Gn 221; — 3. after the noun stressed w®h¹°¹reƒ hinn¢h Gn 3421; — 4. after stressed pron.: a) subj. of following vb. wa°­nî hinn¢h l¹qaµti but I myself Nu 132, b) referring to the following noun: °­nî hinn¢h b®rîtî the covenant wh. I have made Gn 174; — 5. emphasizes the entire clause wh. follows hinn¢h n¹tattî see, I give Gn 129; causes inversion of subj. & pred. hinn¢h rû­µ b¹°â Jb 119; — 6. introduces an unexpected new development: w®hinn¢h r¹µ¢l Gn 296; — 7. introduces an emphatic apodosis: hin®nî Ex 817 then I will; — 8. after vbs. of perception: wayyar° w®hinn¢h Gn 1928, wayyaµ­lœm w®hinn¢h 2812; introducing announcement l¢°mœr hinn¢h Gn 3813; — 9. hin®nî a) w. pt. hin®nî m¢bî° Gn 617; b) hin®nî °¢lék¹/±¹lék¹ formula of challenge, behold I am against you Je 2113; c) w. 3 sg. impf. hin®nî yôsîf Is 2914 385, ? rel. or rd. yôs¢f; — 10. before a conditional clause = if w®hinn¢h n¢l¢k 1S 97. (pg 82)

h; particle article hm’l.[; noun common feminine singular absolute

Hol6330 hm’l.[;
hm’l.[;: pl. tAml'[]: girl (of marriageable age), young woman (until the birth of first child) Gn 2443 Is 714; unexplained term in performance Ps 461 1C 1520. (pg 274)
Hol1918 h;
h;: w. dageš forte &c. « gramm., def. art., the: I: — 1. in older & poet. Heb., oft. omitted, š¹mayim & °ereƒ Is 12; art. then had demonstr. mng.: hayyôm, the day there, today Gn 414, happa±am this time; — 2. rarely,, before fin. vb., introducing rel. clause heh¹l®kû who went Jos 1024; — 3. before pt., as appos.: hannœt¢n who gives Gn 4921.

II. def. art.: — 1. individually, w. known noun: h¹±îr the (already mentioned) city Gn 115; — 2. w. voc.: hammelek (O) king! 1S 249; — 3. w. proper nouns, spec. hayyard¢n, hakkarmel, hall®b¹nôn, ha´´¹‰¹n; — 4. indicates the spec. category: k¹b¢d bammiqneh rich in cattle Gn 132; spec. category of men: haƒƒ¹dîq the righteous (coll.) Ec 317; h¹rœ±eh the shepherd(s) (coll.) > a shepherd; — 5. in comparison: kammœƒ like chaff Ps 14; lacking when comparison is more spec. described: k®q¢n m®šullaµ Is 162; — 6. w. abstracts: baƒƒ¹m¹° w. thirst Is 4117. (pg 75)

hr,h’ adjective feminine singular absolute

Hol2073 hr,h’
*hr,h’: f. hr’h’; cs. tr;h’, pl. cs. tArh’, sf. h’yt,Arh’, ~h,yteArh’ & wyt’AYrih’: pregnant Gn 1611, l®°îš by a man 3825, liznûnîm by prostitution 3824. (pg 84)

w> particle conjunction dly verb qal participle feminine singular absolute

Hol3339 dl;y”
dl;y” (ca. 600 ×): qal: pf. Œy, hd’l.y”), hd’l'(y”, yTid.l'(y”, Wdl.y”), Wdl'(y”, 2 sg. f. ynITid.liy> Je 1510, 1 sg. ^yTid.liy>, ^t.d;l’y>, ^t.d'(l’y>, impf. dley:, dl,yEò, Pr 271, dleTe, dl,Teñw:, dle(aew”, Wdl.yE, Wdle(YEw:, !WdleyE, hn”d.l;Te, !”d.leTe; inf. td,l,ñl’, hd’lel., tl;l’, 1S 419, yTid.li, hn”T'(d.li Jb 392, abs. dAly”; pt. dleyO, td,l,yO, T.d.l;yOw> Gn 1611 Ju 135•7 (mixed form w. T.d.l;y”w>), hd’leAy, ATd.l;Ay, ^T,(d.l;Ay, ~k,T.d.l;Ay, tAdl.YOh;, pass. dWly”, cs. dWly>, ~yd.Wly>h;: — 1. (subj. woman) bear (children) Gn 316; (of animals) bring forth (young) Gn 3039; lay (eggs) Je 1711; y¹lûd new-born (baby) 1K 326f, pl. 1C 144; — 2. (subj. man) beget, procreate, become the father of Gn 418; — 3. metaph. y¹lœd °¹wen Jb 1535; Moses ‘conceives’ the people Nu 1112; God the Rock that begets Isr. Dt 3218; ma-yy¢led yôm what a/the day brings forth Pr 271.

nif.: pf. dl;An, Wdl.An; impf. dleW”yI, -dl,W”ai, Wdl.W”)yI, Wdle(W”yI; inf. dl,W”òhi, Adl.W”)hi; pt. dl’An, Al-dl;ANh; Gn 313, ~ydil’An: be born Gn 101; of animals Lv 2227; wayyiww¹l¢d laµ­nôk °et-(!)±îr¹d I. was born to E. Gn 418; yôm hiww¹l®d¹h day of her birth Ho 25; metaph. of people Is 668 who are to be born in the future.

piel: inf. ~k,d.L,y:; pt. td,L,y:m., tAdL.y:m.: help at birth, serve as midwife Ex 116; pt. f. midwife Ex 115•17-21. †
pual (or pass. qal?): dL;Wy, dL;yU, dL'(Wy, dL'(yU, hd’L.yU, yTid.L;yU, WdL.yU, WdL'(yU, ~T,d.L;yU, pt. dL’yU, dL’YUh; Ju 138: be born Gn 426; metaph. of mountains Ps 902.

hif.: pf. dyliAh, T’d.l;Ah, WdyliAh, Hd’yliAh; impf. dyliAy, dl,AYw:; impv. WdyliAh; inf. AdyliAh, dleAh; pt. dyliAm, ~ydiliAm: — 1. beget, procreate, become the father of (« qal 2) Gn 53; w. min, by 1C 89; — 2. make (s.thg, s.one) bring forth Is 669a•b; (rain, earth) Is 5510; metaph. °¹wen Is 594.

hof.: inf. td,L,hu & td,l,Wh: be born (only w. yôm) Gn 402 Ez 164f. †

hitp.: impf. Wdl.y:t.YIw: (not L): denom. have onesf. entered in a family register and so have one’s descent acknowledged Nu 118. † (pg 135)
Hol2098 w>
w>: form: mostly w>, but a) W before b, m, & p, & before cons. w. simple shewa; b) w” immediately before tone-syl.: ht’y>b'(ñw”; c) w:, w<, w” (w©) before cons. w. corresponding µatef: ynIa]w:; d) wI before y>: yhiywI; e) w: w. dageš forte & w” before a in impf. consec.; — 1. and, connecting 2 words or phrases: °ereƒ w®š¹mayim; oft. in hendiadys: š¹lôm w¹šeqet complete peace 1C 229; — 2. connecting 3 or more words, standing either a) before every word but the first: yayin w®qayiƒ w®šemen Je 4010, or b) only before the last: bammiqneh bakkesef ûbazz¹h¹b Gn 132; the 3rd–5th words have w® 2K 235; — 3. intensifying: also, even: ûb®môt¹m and in … too 2S 123; — 4. inclusive: with, and in addition: ûmaƒƒôt Ex 128; — 5. explanatory: and indeed: ûb®°app®kem Am 410; namely w®deber 1C 2112; — 6. w® > or in conditional & interr. clauses: ûb®°ištô or his wife Gn 2611; — 7. in repetition of a word, w® expresses variety: °eben w¹°eben various weights Pr 2010; — 8. after k® ‘as,’ w® = so: ûš®mû±â ‰ôbâ so is good news Pr 2525; — 9. w® … w® both … and Nu 914; — 10. connecting 2 or more clauses: w®hû° g¹r Ju 1916 ; — 11. a circumstantial clause introduced by w® becomes like a relative clause: w®h¢m and they = who Gn 1413, ûš®m¹h and her name = whose name Gn 161; — 12. in older Heb. a 2nd clause introduced by w® adds accompanying circumstances, supplementary comments, &c.: w®n¹±¹l and in doing so closed … Ju 323; — 13. connecting impvs. & jussives: Ju 196; — 14. connecting comparisons & parallelisms: Jb 57; — 15. w. antitheses, w® = but: w®°et-b®rîtî but my covenant Gn 1721; — 16. a series of clauses w. w® may express alternatives: whether … or Ex 2116; — 17. introducing clauses of conditions or circumstances: w®hî° yœšebet while she sat Ju 139; — 18. taking up the subj. of a main clause preceded by a clause of circumstance: w®hî° š¹l®µâ then she sent Gn 3825; — 19. similarly w® can be translated by a great variety of conjunctions: w®°¹nœkî since I Gn 152, w®š¹w° because Ps 6013 &c.; — 20. introducing an asseveration: w®°attem ±¢day Is 4312; — 21. after a command, question, or denial, w® before a juss. or coh. expresses subordination: w®°¢d®±â so that I may know Gn 4234; — 22. likewise, following an impv. or juss., w. w® + impv.: wehy¢h so that you are Gn 122; — 23. introducing an apodosis after a conditional clause: w®y¹l®dû then … Gn 318; — 24. similarly when the conditional clause is a ‘casus pendens’: w®nikr®tâ Gn 1714; — 25. introducing the verb after word of time: bayyôm hašš®lîšî wayyi´´¹° Gn 224; — 26. introducing deductions & qns. (oral style): w®h¹šîbû so repent! Ez 1832; w®°ayyô and where is he? Ex 220; — 27. as impf. consec., vocalized wa in expressing the progression of the action: wayyifga± … wayy¹len … wayyaµ­lœm Gn 2811, oft. = (and) then, also after word of time (« 25). Even at beginning of books (Ez Ru Est); as expr. of deduction: watt®sît¢nî so that you … Jb 23; — 28. in the ‘pf. consec.’ w® + pf. after impf. or impv., juss.: °­µapp¢´ ûl®qaµtîm Am 93; l¢k w®°¹mart¹TÄ 2S 75; — 29. other usages before pf.: a) iterative °¢d ya±­leh w®hišqâ Gn 26; b) Aram. for impf. consec. Ec 914-16; c) archival 2K 183ff 234-15; — 30. w® includes the negation of lœ° (Ps 1216) and °al (382). (pg 85)

!Be noun common masculine singular absolute homonym 1

Hol1124 !Be
I !Be (4850 ×): abs. !Be, -!Be 1S 2220 Ez 1810 †; cs. -!B, (!B, Ne 618 1C 921 †, !B,mi before number Nu 825 & oft., !Be Gn 4922) & -!Bi (!Bi Dt 252 †), ynIB. Gn 4911 & AnB. Nu 2318 243•15; sf. AnB., ynIB., ^n>Bi, ^n”)B.; pl. ~ynIB’, cs. ynEB. (note: Ju 2013 Qr w/o Kt), sf. wyn”B’, ykiy>n:b’ Kt & %yIn:B’ Qr, ~h,ynEB.; var. Kt/Qr problems, e.g. Dn 1110 AnB. Kt & wyn”b’ Qr; f. « tB; : — 1. a) son Gn 54; ben-z®qûnîm son conceived in old age Gn 373; b¢n z¹k¹r male child Je 2015, b¹nîm children (incl. daughters) Gn 316, ben-bêtî born in my house Gn 153; b®nî °attâ formula of adoption Ps 27; b®nê °®lœhîm « °®lô­h II 1; — b) young (of an animal): ben-b¹q¹r calf Gn 187, b®nê ƒœ°n lambs Ps 1144; b¹nîm young (birds) Dt 226; — 2. grandson Gn 321; — 3. intimate address to younger comrade, disciple: b®nî 1S 2617•21•25; bink¹, formula of servility, = ‘I’ 2K 89; — 4. w. coll. to indicate an individual: ben-°¹d¹m, human being Ez 21 (93 × in Ez), Dn 817; b®nê °¹d¹m individual men Dt 328, b®nê °ebyôn individual poor Ps 724; — 5. member of a people, tribe: b®nê °®dôm Ps 1377; — 6. member of a group, class, guild, ben-n¹bî° member of a group of prophets Am 714, pl. b®nê hann. 1K 2035; — 7. one belonging to a category, manner, destiny: b®nê m®rî sons of rebellion = rebels Nu 1725; bin hakkôt one deserving to be beaten Dt 252; ben-m¹wet one who deserves death 1S 2031; — 8. in stating s.one’s age, ben-š®mœnat y¹mîm 8 days old Gn 1712; — 9. used in contempt instead of s.one’s own name: son of Jesse 1S 2030f; — 10. metaph.: ben-qešet = arrow Jb 4120; — 2. son to God: Solomon becomes 2S 714, pl. of Isr. Dt 141. (pg 42)
II !Be: n. pers. 1C 1518, but corr. † (pg 42)

w> particle conjunction arq verb qal waw consec perfect 3rd person feminine singular homonym 1

Hol7615 ar’q’
I ar’q’: qal: pf. Œq, tar’q’ 3 sg. f. Is 714, t’ar’q’, ~t,ar’q., %a’r’q., wytiar’q.; impf. ar’q.yI, ar’q.a,w”, ha,r’q.a,w” 1S 2815 (txt. error; rd. ar,- or ar’-), War.q.yI, War'(q.yI, hn”ar,q.Ti, ^ar,q.Tiw:, Whaer.q.yI > Aar.q.yI Je 236, ~aer.q.Ti, &amp;’a,r’q.a,, Whaur’q.yI, ynIn>aur’q.yI Pr 128; impv. ar’q., War.qi, War'(q., !”ar,q. Ru 120, !a,r.qi Ex 220, ynIaer’q., hN”a,r’q.; inf. aroq., twaOrq. Ju 81, yair.q’; pt. are¿AÀqo, ~yair.qo, ~yariqo Ps 996 , wya’r.qo, pass. aWrq’, pl. sf. h’ya,ruq.: — 1. q¹r¹° l®: call Gn 1218; q¹r¹° + acc. 271, abs. 3915, w. °el 39; the message follows as acc. Ex 346; — 2. q¹r¹° š¢m l®: give a name to Gn 220, > q¹r¹° l® call ( = name) (the light ‘day’) Gn 15; q¹r¹° š®mô + acc. call his name, call him so-and-so Gn 320; — 3. q¹r¹° b®š¢m + gen. invoke (the name of Y.) Gn 426; q¹r¹° b®š¢m + acc. call s.one by name Nu 3238, summon Ex 312; q¹r¹° ±al-š®mô call (a village) after one’s own name Dt 314; q¹r¹° š¢môt l® give names to (the stars) Ps 1477; — 4. call, summon (obj. convocation, assembly) Lv 2324; — 5. proclaim: obj. release Is 611, fast 1K 219; — 6. q¹r¹° lifnê call in front of s.one Gn 4143; q¹r¹° b®°oznê call loudly to Ez 818; — 7. obj. of calling is God: call on, appeal to: w. °el 1K 852, w. l® 1C 410; w. b®š¢m-°®lœhê 1K 1824, sf. Ps 865; — 8. invite 1K 19f; q¹rû° l¹h invited by her Est 512, q®rû°îm 1S 913; — 9. spec.: q¹r¹° l®š¹lôm °el-±îr offer terms of peace to Dt 2010; q¹r¹° q®rî°â °el proclaim a message to Jon 32; q¹r¹° š®mô b® make one’s name known in Ru 411; — 10. q¹r¹° b® recite from, read aloud from (book, scroll) Dt 1719; q¹ra° b®°oznê read aloud to Ex 247; q¹r¹° + acc. read (a letter &c.) 2K 57.

nif.: pf. ar’q.nI, ha’r.q.nI, War'(q.nI; impf. areQ’yI, War;(Q’Ti; pt. ar’q.nI, ~yair’q.nI: — 1. subj. person: be called ( = be addressed, summoned) Est 312; w. b®š¢m by name Est 214; w. ±al be summoned against Is 314; — 2. subj. (news of) disaster: be cried out, exclaimed Je 420; subj. name: be invoked Je 4426; niqr¹° š®mô = it is known to exist Ec 610; yiqq¹r¢° l®k¹ zera± b® your descendants will be called = identified through Gn 2112; — 3. naming: yiqq¹r¢° l®: l®zœ°t yiqq¹r¢° °iššâ (lit.: ‘°iššâ’ shall be called to her =) she shall be called ‘°iššâ’ Gn 223; niqr¹° (š®mô) his name is Gn 175 Is 545; — 4. niqr¹° š®mô ±al one’s name is used over ( = guardianship, dominion): over women Is 41, city 2S 1228, temple 1K 843; — 5. niqr¹° min, is named after Is 482; — 6. niqr¹° ±al-š¢m be called by the name of Gn 486; = niqr¹° b®š¢m Is 437; — 7. niqr¹° ±al be called ( = counted) among 1C 2314; — 8. be read: subj. message Ne 131, subj. book Est 61
pual (or qal pass.): pf. ar’qo; pt. sf. yair’qom.: be called, named (by God’s name) Is 622 651; qœr¹° lî I am named Is 488 5812 613 Ez 1013; pt. my called one = the one I called Is 4812. †
b>. (pg 323)
Hol2098 w>
w>: form: mostly w>, but a) W before b, m, & p, & before cons. w. simple shewa; b) w” immediately before tone-syl.: ht’y>b'(ñw”; c) w:, w<, w” (w©) before cons. w. corresponding µatef: ynIa]w:; d) wI before y>: yhiywI; e) w: w. dageš forte & w” before a in impf. consec.; — 1. and, connecting 2 words or phrases: °ereƒ w®š¹mayim; oft. in hendiadys: š¹lôm w¹šeqet complete peace 1C 229; — 2. connecting 3 or more words, standing either a) before every word but the first: yayin w®qayiƒ w®šemen Je 4010, or b) only before the last: bammiqneh bakkesef ûbazz¹h¹b Gn 132; the 3rd–5th words have w® 2K 235; — 3. intensifying: also, even: ûb®môt¹m and in … too 2S 123; — 4. inclusive: with, and in addition: ûmaƒƒôt Ex 128; — 5. explanatory: and indeed: ûb®°app®kem Am 410; namely w®deber 1C 2112; — 6. w® > or in conditional & interr. clauses: ûb®°ištô or his wife Gn 2611; — 7. in repetition of a word, w® expresses variety: °eben w¹°eben various weights Pr 2010; — 8. after k® ‘as,’ w® = so: ûš®mû±â ‰ôbâ so is good news Pr 2525; — 9. w® … w® both … and Nu 914; — 10. connecting 2 or more clauses: w®hû° g¹r Ju 1916 ; — 11. a circumstantial clause introduced by w® becomes like a relative clause: w®h¢m and they = who Gn 1413, ûš®m¹h and her name = whose name Gn 161; — 12. in older Heb. a 2nd clause introduced by w® adds accompanying circumstances, supplementary comments, &c.: w®n¹±¹l and in doing so closed … Ju 323; — 13. connecting impvs. & jussives: Ju 196; — 14. connecting comparisons & parallelisms: Jb 57; — 15. w. antitheses, w® = but: w®°et-b®rîtî but my covenant Gn 1721; — 16. a series of clauses w. w® may express alternatives: whether … or Ex 2116; — 17. introducing clauses of conditions or circumstances: w®hî° yœšebet while she sat Ju 139; — 18. taking up the subj. of a main clause preceded by a clause of circumstance: w®hî° š¹l®µâ then she sent Gn 3825; — 19. similarly w® can be translated by a great variety of conjunctions: w®°¹nœkî since I Gn 152, w®š¹w° because Ps 6013 &c.; — 20. introducing an asseveration: w®°attem ±¢day Is 4312; — 21. after a command, question, or denial, w® before a juss. or coh. expresses subordination: w®°¢d®±â so that I may know Gn 4234; — 22. likewise, following an impv. or juss., w. w® + impv.: wehy¢h so that you are Gn 122; — 23. introducing an apodosis after a conditional clause: w®y¹l®dû then … Gn 318; — 24. similarly when the conditional clause is a ‘casus pendens’: w®nikr®tâ Gn 1714; — 25. introducing the verb after word of time: bayyôm hašš®lîšî wayyi´´¹° Gn 224; — 26. introducing deductions & qns. (oral style): w®h¹šîbû so repent! Ez 1832; w®°ayyô and where is he? Ex 220; — 27. as impf. consec., vocalized wa in expressing the progression of the action: wayyifga± … wayy¹len … wayyaµ­lœm Gn 2811, oft. = (and) then, also after word of time (« 25). Even at beginning of books (Ez Ru Est); as expr. of deduction: watt®sît¢nî so that you … Jb 23; — 28. in the ‘pf. consec.’ w® + pf. after impf. or impv., juss.: °­µapp¢´ ûl®qaµtîm Am 93; l¢k w®°¹mart¹TÄ 2S 75; — 29. other usages before pf.: a) iterative °¢d ya±­leh w®hišqâ Gn 26; b) Aram. for impf. consec. Ec 914-16; c) archival 2K 183ff 234-15; — 30. w® includes the negation of lœ° (Ps 1216) and °al (382). (pg 85)

~ve noun common masculine singular construct suffix 3rd person masculine singular homonym 1

Hol8694 ~ve
I ~ve (860 ×): cs. ~ve, -~ve, -~v,, sf. Amv., ^m.vi, hk’m.vi Je 2925, ^m,(v., %mev.; pl. t¿AÀmove, cs. tAmv., sf. ~t’Amv., !t’Amv.: — 1. name: of animals Gn 219, of persons 320, of town 1K 1624; mî š®mô what is his name? Ju 1317; ´¹m š®mô d¹n named him D. Ju 831; wayyasse¢b š®mô d¹n he changed his name to D. 2K 2334; — 2. name > standing, reputation Ec 71; ‰®m¢°at hašš¢m w. a stained reputation Ez 225; > renown: ±¹´â lô š¢m make a name for onesf. Gn 114, š¢m g¹dôl 2S 79, gidd¢l š¢m Gn 122; ´¹m l®š¢m make famous Zp 319= š¹m lô š¢m 2S 723; wayy¢ƒ¢° l¹k š¢m your fame spread abroad Ez 1614; — 3. > posthumous renown, memory Jb 1817; š¢m ûš®°¢rît 2S 147; — 4. name, posthumous renown > existence after death (in those carrying one’s name) Dt 257; — 5. spec., the name of God: niqr¹° š¢m yhwh ±al 2S 62; oft. š¢m yhwh = the name ‘Yahweh,’ Ps 512 , > Y.’s being & power Jb 121; kašš¢m Lv 2411evid. = ‘Yahweh.’
(pg 375)
II ~ve: n. pers. Gn 532. (pg 375)

lae WnM'[i noun proper no gender no number no state

Hol6374 lae
lae WnM'[i: n. pers. Is 714 88. † (pg 276)

lae WnM'[i noun proper no gender no number no state

Hol6374 lae
lae WnM'[i: n. pers. Is 714 88. † (pg 276)

There are Aramaic Targums to other biblical passages in the Old Testament that reveal Jewish thought concerning the Word of the Lord God. The earliest dating of the Jewish Targums goes back to the second temple of Jerusalem, according to the Jewish Encyclopedia. See the following  quote and subsequent link: “The Aramaic translation of the Bible. It forms a part of the Jewish traditional literature, and in its inception is as early as the time of the Second Temple” (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14248-targum). The second temple was completed at 516 B.C.. The Hellenist era (337 B.C. – 165 B.C.) did not start until after the time of the second building of the temple. As stated earlier there was no influence of the philosophy on the Hebrews. Nor had the concept of the logos become a subject of discussion at this time. See below the scriptures of the Okelos and Pseudo Jonathan Targums translated into English by Etheridge as examples.

 23 And it was after many of those days that the king of Mizraim was struck (with disease), and he commanded to kill the firstborn of the sons of Israel, that he might bathe himself in their blood. And the sons of Israel groaned with the labour that was hard upon them; and they cried, and their cry ascended to the high heavens of the Lord. And He spake in His Word to deliver them from the travail. (Exo 2:23 PJE)

21 Bileam the wicked said, I see not among them of the house of Jakob such as worship idols: they who serve false idols are not established among the tribes of the sons of Israel. The Word of the Lord their God is their help, and the trumpets of the King Meshiha resound among them:
22 Unto Eloha, who redeemed and led them out of Mizraim free, belong power and exaltation, glorification and greatness.
(Num 23:21-22 PJE)

21 I have seen that in the house of Jakob The worshippers of idols are not, Nor in Israel the workers of the work of lies. The Word of the Lord their God is their helper, And the Shekinah of their King is among them.
22 God, who brought them out from Mizraim, Becomes his strength and exaltation.
(Num 23:21-22 OKE)

4 Though you may be dispersed unto the ends of the heavens, from thence will the Word of the Lord gather you together by the hand of Elijah the great priest, and from thence will He bring you by the hand of the King Meshiha. (Deu 30:4 PJE)

It is then in these passages of scriptures above that we can see the idea of the Eternal Word of the Lord God “to deliver,” “who redeemed” “is there helper,” being revealed through the quoted words above, and contributing to the description of what the Eternal Word of the Lord God was doing. Furthermore, in the above scriptures this same Eternal Word of the Lord God is spoken of as being “their God.” The Lord God is also referred to as “Word,” “King,” and “Meshiha.” It is in the time of captivity that the Lord God was revealing Himself to the Prophet Isaiah that His Word would not fail. The Word of God began to be seen as a dynamic power that was in the mouth of the Lord God but when spoken became a living entity attached to the Lord God, in that, it could not be separated from the being it had with the Lord God. How could the word of the Lord save if there is no one but the word of the Lord to fulfill it? The Lord carried off His people every time they forsook Him. In Jeremiah 23: 33-38, in these verses of scripture this question seems to be struggled with. The answer lies within the Hebrew word “massa.” See the following link for the definition, root word, and Strongs H4853: (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/hwview.cgi?n=4853). You may cross reference with the following link: (http://biblehub.com/interlinear/jeremiah/23-33.htm). It seems that the Lord God was saying that He would be carried away from Himself so that the Hebrews, His people, would not be carried away by the Semite peoples represented by Massa. See also the following link to the Hebrew particle direct object marker “eth” (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/hwview.cgi?n=853). Could this be the sign of the new covenant?

  • A) ta (את AT) AC: ? CO: Plow AB: ?: The plowing of a field by driving the oxen to a distant mark.Nf) ta (את AT) – I. Plow-point:The plow-point is used to cut a deep furrow in the ground for planting seeds. [A common grammatical word that precedes the direct object of a verb] II.Sign:A sign, mark or wonder (as a sign) . [Aramaic only] III. At:Something that moves near something to be with it. Also used as grammatical tool to mark the direct object of the verb. [df: ty] KJV (7373): plowshare, coulter, sign, against, with, in, upon – Strongs: H852 (אָת),H853 (אֵת), H854 (אֵת), H855 (אֵת), H3487 (יָת)” (http://www.studylight.org/lexicons/hebrew/hwview.cgi?n=853)

39 You keep examining the Tanakh because you think that in it you have eternal life. Those very Scriptures bear witness to me,
40 but you won’t come to me in order to have life!
(Joh 5:39-40 CJB)

12 This is the line of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s slave, bore to Abraham.
13 These are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, in the order of their birth: Nebaioth, the first-born of Ishmael, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam,
14 Mishma, Dumah, Massa,
15 Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedmah.
16 These are the sons of Ishmael and these are their names by their villages and by their encampments: twelve chieftains of as many tribes. (Gen 25:12-16 TNK)

28 The sons of Abraham: Isaac and Ishmael.
29 This is their line: The first-born of Ishmael, Nebaioth; and Kedar, Abdeel, Mibsam,
30 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema,
31 Jetur, Naphish, and Kedmah. These are the sons of Ishmael. (1Ch 1:28-31 TNK)

23 By Myself have I sworn, From My mouth has issued truth, A word that shall not turn back: To Me every knee shall bend, Every tongue swear loyalty.
24 They shall say: “Only through the LORD Can I find victory and might. When people trust in Him, All their adversaries are put to shame.
25 It is through the LORD that all the offspring of Israel Have vindication and glory.”
(Isa 45:23-25 TNK)

11 So is the word that issues from My mouth: It does not come back to Me unfulfilled, But performs what I purpose, Achieves what I sent it to do. (Isa 55:11 TNK)

29 In the days of King Pekah of Israel, King Tiglath-pileser of Assyria came and captured Ijon, Abel-beth-maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor — Gilead, Galilee, the entire region of Naphtali; and he deported the inhabitants to Assyria. (2Ki 15:29 TNK)

9 The king of Assyria responded to his request; the king of Assyria marched against Damascus and captured it. He deported its inhabitants to Kir and put Rezin to death. (2Ki 16:9 TNK)

6 In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria. He deported the Israelites to Assyria and settled them in Halah, at the River Habor, at the River Gozan, and in the towns of Media. (2Ki 17:6 TNK)

23 In the end, the LORD removed Israel from His presence, as He had warned them through all His servants the prophets. So the Israelites were deported from their land to Assyria, as is still the case. (2Ki 17:23 TNK)

26 They said to the king of Assyria: “The nations which you deported and resettled in the towns of Samaria do not know the rules of the God of the land; therefore He has let lions loose against them which are killing them — for they do not know the rules of the God of the land.” (2Ki 17:26 TNK)

27 The king of Assyria gave an order: “Send there one of the priests whom you have deported; let him go and dwell there, and let him teach them the practices of the God of the land.” (2Ki 17:27 TNK)

33 They worshiped the LORD, while serving their own gods according to the practices of the nations from which they had been deported. (2Ki 17:33 TNK)

11 and the king of Assyria deported the Israelites to Assyria. He settled them in Halah, along the Habor and the River Gozan, and in the towns of Media. (2Ki 18:11 TNK)

15 He deported Jehoiachin to Babylon; and the king’s wives and officers and the notables of the land were brought as exiles from Jerusalem to Babylon. (2Ki 24:15 TNK)

33 And when this people — or a prophet or a priest — asks you, “What is the burden of the LORD?” you shall answer them, “What is the bur- den? I will cast you off” — declares the LORD. (Jer 23:33 TNK)

33 wükî-yiš•´ol•kä hä`äm hazzè ´ô|-hannäbî´ ´ô|-köhën lë´mör mà-maSSä´ yhwh(´ädönäy) wü´ämar•Tä ´álêhem ´et-mà-maSSä´ wünä†aš•Tî ´et•kem nü´um-yhwh(´ädönäy) (Jer 23:33 BHT)

33 וְכִי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ֩ הָעָ֙ם הַזֶּ֜ה אֽוֹ־הַנָּבִ֤יא אֽוֹ־כֹהֵן֙ לֵאמֹ֔ר מַה־מַשָּׂ֖א יְהוָ֑ה וְאָמַרְתָּ֤ אֲלֵיהֶם֙ אֶת־מַה־מַשָּׂ֔א וְנָטַשְׁתִּ֥י אֶתְכֶ֖ם נְאֻם־יְהוָֽה׃ (Jer 23:33 WTT)

tae particle direct object marker homonym 1 (See Jouon Muraoka, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew; Ch. 2 Sec. 125 pp 410)

  • “Chapter 2: The Cases

    a The accusative is, properly speaking, the verbal or adverbal case: it is subordinated to the verb, either directly (accusative of object), or indirectly (accusative of determination relative to the verb, ad-verbial accusative, § 126). It is true that the accusative is sometimes found subordinated to a noun (§ 127), but this is a secondary usage based on the analogy of the accusative indirectly subordinated to the verb.

    The direct accusative indicates the object of the verb. The object may be effected, i.e. brought about by the verbal action, e.g. !Wml{x]y: tAml{x] Jl 3.1 they will have dreams (somnia somniabunt); or simply affected, (directly) reached by the verbal action, e.g. Atao rPes;y>w: Gn 37.9 and he recounted (the dream). Therefore a distinction will be made between the two kinds of direct object, i.e. between the affected object and the effected object(2) (§ p).

    b I) Accusative of the affected object. With some verbs the verbal action passes directly to the object (transitive verbs), with others it passes to the object through a preposition(3) (intransitive verbs or, more precisely, transitive through preposition). But some verbs can be both transitive and intransitive. Thus [g:n” to touch is generally intransitive (transitive through


    1 Retention of these terms has an added advantage of facilitating comparison of the syntax of Hebrew with that of ancient cognate languages still retaining the case endings, notably Classical Arabic, Akkadian, and Ugaritic, which amply attest to, and illustrate, analogous phenomena.

    2 Cf. Brockelmann, GvG, II 29 1ff.

    3 It is important to remember that, in this context, the direct object marker ta (but not ta of association and company) does not count as a preposition.”

hm’ pronoun interrogative no gender no number   aF’m; noun common masculine singular construct homonym 1

Hol5135 aF’m;
I aF’m;: sf. AaF’m;, ~k,a]F;m;: — 1. carrying: l®°ên ma´´¹° so that it was impossible to carry away 2C 2025, °ên lakem ma´´¹° you have nothing to carry 353; — 2. burden (of ass, mule, &c.) 2K 517; b®ma´´¹°/bamma- had charge of transport 1C 1522•27 (oth.: of setting the pitch [in singing]); — 3. burden = hardship Nu 1111, h¹yâ l®ma´´¹° ±al be(come) a burden on s.one 2S 1533; ma´´¹° nafš¹m longing of their soul Ez 2425; — 4. play on mng. of II ‘pronouncement’ Je 2333-38. (pg 217)
II aF’m;: pronouncement: n¹´¹ ma´´¹° ±al 2K 925; µ¹zâ ma´´¹° Is 131; ma´´¹ d®bar yhwh Zc 91; ma´´¹° ±al 2C 2427, ma´´¹° mô°¹b pronouncement about M. Is 151; Je 2333-38 « I. (pg 217)
III aF’m;: n. (pers. &) peop. Gn 2514 1C 130; Pr 311; 301 ?. † (pg 217)

Hol5136 aF’m;
I aF’m;: sf. AaF’m;, ~k,a]F;m;: — 1. carrying: l®°ên ma´´¹° so that it was impossible to carry away 2C 2025, °ên lakem ma´´¹° you have nothing to carry 353; — 2. burden (of ass, mule, &c.) 2K 517; b®ma´´¹°/bamma- had charge of transport 1C 1522•27 (oth.: of setting the pitch [in singing]); — 3. burden = hardship Nu 1111, h¹yâ l®ma´´¹° ±al be(come) a burden on s.one 2S 1533; ma´´¹° nafš¹m longing of their soul Ez 2425; — 4. play on mng. of II ‘pronouncement’ Je 2333-38. (pg 217)
II aF’m;: pronouncement: n¹´¹ ma´´¹° ±al 2K 925; µ¹zâ ma´´¹° Is 131; ma´´¹ d®bar yhwh Zc 91; ma´´¹° ±al 2C 2427, ma´´¹° mô°¹b pronouncement about M. Is 151; Je 2333-38 « I. (pg 217)
III aF’m;: n. (pers. &) peop. Gn 2514 1C 130; Pr 311; 301 ?. † (pg 217)
Hol4315 hm’
hm’: -hm’ (Gn 3143 + 25 ×); hm, & -hm, (Ex 321 + 12 ×); hm; or -hm; oft. w. dagheš; m’ in ~hem’ Ez 86 (Qr ~he hm’); m; w. dagheš Ex 42 Is 315 Ma 113 1C 1513 2C 303 †: — (A) pron. what: — 1. mâ ra°îtî Gn 2010; µokmat-meh wisdom in what? = what kind of w. Je 86; w. min: ma-mmillaylâ how much of = how late (is it) in the night Is 2111; — 2. indir. question: lir°ôt ma-yyiqr¹° Gn 219; — 3. w. zeh: mazzeh b®y¹dek¹ what is that in your hand? Ex 42; — 4. ellipt. mah-ll¹k what do you have? Ju 114; w. kî: mah-ll¹±¹m kî what is the matter with the people, that they … 1S 115; w/o kî Is 315; w. l® & inf.: mah-ll®k¹ l®sapp¢r Ps 5016, w. pt. Jon 16; mah-llî w¹l¹k what do I have to do with you? Ju 1112; mah-ll®k¹ ûl®š¹lôm what do you care about whether all is well? 2K 918; w. °¢t: mah-llatteben °et-habb¹r what has straw to do with wheat? Je 2328; meh hayâ še how does it happen that Ec 710; — 5. after vb. of telling, seeing, &c., what = that which: higgîd mah-‰‰ôb Mi 68; — 6. after neg.: lœ° … mâ does not know about what = anything Gn 398; — 7. w. še whatever Ec 19; — 8. as indef. pron.: w®r¹°îtî mâ and if I learn anything 1S 193; d®bar mah-yyar°¢nî whatever he shows me Nu 233; — (B) adv. what > how: mah-nnôr¹° how awesome Gn 2817; how much: mâ-°¹habtî Ps 11997; mah-zzeh how is it that … ? Gn 2720; = why Gn 313; mah-zzeh rûµ­k¹ s¹râ why (in the world) is your spirit so low? 1K 215; — (C) ‘what,’ ‘how’ > neg.: mah-nništeh what have we to drink? = we have nothing to dr. Ex 1524; mah-ll¹nû µ¢leq = we have no share 1K 1216; — (D) w. prep.: — 1. bammâ, bammeh how (shall I know) Gn 158; in what (else) Ex 2226 &c.; — 2. kammâ, kammeh: how much, how many Gn 478, = how few 2S 1935; = how often Ps 7840; ±ad-kammeh p®±¹mîm how many times 1K 2216, zeh kammeh š¹nîm how many years now Zc 73; — 3. l¹m¹TÄ 4 × & l¹TÄm¹ Jb 720, l¹TÄmeh 1S 18 & l¹TÄmmâ: a) to what = why Gn 1218 & oft.; l¹mmâ zzeh why (in the world) Gn 1813; b) > conj. = so that … not, lest Ec 55; otherwise 1S 1917; °­šer l¹mmâ Dn 110 & šall¹mâ SS 17, so that … not; — 4. ±ad-mâ & ±ad-meh how long (still) Nu 2422 Ps 43; — 5. ±al-mâ on what basis, why? Is 15. (pg 184)

See below the Aramaic translation of Isaiah chapter 45 verse 17.  One of the English translations used below is the Webster (WEB). For comparison see below. This translation does not include the aramaic word “rmym.” “{But} Israel shall be saved in the LORD with an everlasting salvation: ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded world without end (Isa 45:17 WEB).” See the following to cross reference with the Tanakh: “But Israel has won through the LORD Triumph everlasting. You shall not be shamed or disgraced In all the ages to come! (Isa 45:17 TNK)” You may further cross reference with the following external resources link to Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon from Bible Works v.8.: http://cal1.cn.huc.edu/index.html

  • “יִשׂרָאֵל אִתפְרֵיק בְמֵימְרָא דַיוי פֻורקַן עָלְמִין לָא תִיבַהתֻון וְלָא תִתכַנעֻון לְעָלְמָא וּלעָלְמֵי עָלְמַיָא׃  (Isa 45:17 TAR Aramaic OT Bible Works 8 Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon)”

larfy noun proper no gender no number
CAL Lexicon: No entry found.

qrp verb hithpeelCAL Lexicon: qrp verb
peal
1 passim to remove, to unload
2 Syr to go away
3 JLAGal,JLATg,JBA to ransom
ethpeel
1 Syr,JBA to go apart
2 JLAGal,JLATg,JBA to be redeemed
pael
1 passim to dismantle
2 Syr,JBA to split
3 Syr to chatter
4 Syr to borrow money
5 JLAGal,JLATg to redeem priestly gifts
6 JLAGal,JBA to solve a problem
7 JBA to dislocate
ethpaal
1 passim to be dismantled
2 Syr to separate oneself
(h)aphel
1 Syr to command to go apart
2 Syr to remove
3 Syr to separate
4 Syr to take up
5 Syr to liberate
6 Syr to break off
7 Syr to depart
8 JLATg (unclear TN Dt20:6)

b particle preposition rmym noun common no gender singular determinedCAL Lexicon: rmym noun
1 passim speech
2 Syr word
3 JLATg memar
4 Syr poemCAL Lexicon: b preposition
1 passim in
2 passim among
3 passim with
4 passim at
5 passim to, into
6 passim (w. “give”:) for, in exchange for
7 passim adjective + b = superlative

d particle preposition ywy noun no gender no numberCAL Lexicon: ywy divine name
1 Palestinian,JBA,LJLA abbreviation for the TetragramCAL Lexicon: d preposition
1 passim of, genitive particle
2 passim first element of lexemes
3 passim in split genitive phrases
4 passim after numbers
5 passim determinative pron.

!qrwp noun common no gender singularCAL Lexicon: !qrwp noun
1 passim redemption
2 Syr salvation
3 Syr price of redemption
4 Syr punishment

~l[ noun common no gender plural absoluteCAL Lexicon: ~l[ noun
1 passim eternity
2 Palm,Palestinian,Syr,JBA world
3 Syr nation

particle adverbCAL Lexicon: al adverb
1 passim no, not
2 Syr al’d without
3 BibArDan alh > hl) a

thb verb pealCAL Lexicon: thb verb
peal
1 Palestinian,Syr,CPA,JBA,Mand to be ashamed
2 Syr to be confused
(h)aphel
1 Syr to make ashamed, to embarrass
2 Syr to be ashamed
ethpeel
1 Palestinian to be ashamed

w particle conjunction al particle adverbCAL Lexicon: al adverb
1 passim no, not
2 Syr al’d without
3 BibArDan alh > hl) a

[nk verb hithpeelCAL Lexicon: [nk verb
peal
1 Palestinian to bend down
(h)aphel
1 Palestinian to subdue
2 Palestinian to humble
ethpeel
1 JLAGal,JBA to bow
2 Palestinian to humble oneself

l particle preposition ~l[ noun common no gender singular determinedCAL Lexicon: ~l[ noun
1 passim eternity
2 Palm,Palestinian,Syr,JBA world
3 Syr nationCAL Lexicon: l preposition
0 passim to,for
1 passim : general relative (nominal)
2 passim : general relative (verbal)
3 passim : dative
4 passim : direction
5 passim : possession
6 passim : marking the definite direct object
7 passim : subject of passive

w particle conjunction ~l[ noun common no gender plural constructCAL Lexicon: ~l[ noun
1 passim eternity
2 Palm,Palestinian,Syr,JBA world
3 Syr nation

~l[ noun common no gender plural determinedCAL Lexicon: ~l[ noun
1 passim eternity
2 Palm,Palestinian,Syr,JBA world
3 Syr nationCAL Lexicon: w conjunction
1 passim and, als0

~l[ noun common no gender plural determinedCAL Lexicon: ~l[ noun
1 passim eternity
2 Palm,Palestinian,Syr,JBA world
3 Syr nation

In relation to the above verse 33 of Jeremiah chapter 23 it should be noted that the word of the Lord God began to be seen as a burden that could not be upheld. It was, in a sense, burdensome. On one side of the word of the Lord God was mercy DUE TO THE ABRAHAMIC COVENANT THAT WAS TO BE BORNE BY GOD’S PEOPLE, while on the other side there was judgement BECAUSE THE WORD OF GOD COULD NOT BE CARRIED BY GOD’S PEOPLE AND AT THE SAME TIME BECOME A BYWORD, A CARRYING AWAY INTO CAPTIVITY. This is illustrated in the word “Bur-den” in Jer 23: 33 in the Tanakh. The Ark of the Covenant may have contained the Law. See the following quote and subsequent link: “One contained the Law, in addition to the tablets of the Ten Commandments, and the other the tables of stone which Moses had broken” (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1777-ark-of-the-covenant). It should be noted that Uzzah was not able to steady the ark of the covenant without dying for his action (1Chr 15:12-15). See below.

6 But when they came to the threshing floor of Nacon, Uzzah reached out for the Ark of God and grasped it, for the oxen had stumbled.
7 The LORD was incensed at Uzzah. And God struck him down on the spot for his indiscretion, and he died there beside the Ark of God. (2Sa 6:6-7 TNK)

The Lord God recalled the words spoken by Adam to Eve, the same words that Eve spoke to the serpent. Those words which were added to the words of the Lord God were “or touch it.” But God had said “you must not eat of it.” See below.

17 but as for the tree of knowledge of good and bad, you must not eat of it; for as soon as you eat of it, you shall die.” (Gen 2:17 TNK)

3 It is only about fruit of the tree in the middle of the garden that God said: ‘You shall not eat of it or touch it, lest you die.'” (Gen 3:3 TNK)

Who could bring to fulfillment the law that was supposedly represented by the ark of the covenant of the Lord God? The answer is quite clear that man (humanity) could not fulfill it because man (humanity) could not even touch it. In a sense, the Hebrew people were carried away by their own word.  See the following verse: “But do not mention “the burden of the LORD” any more. Does a man regard his own word as a “burden,” that you pervert the words of the living God, the LORD of Hosts, our God (Jer 23:36 TNK)?” The answer is only the Eternal Word could fulfill the words of the law of God. It appears the prophet Jeremiah understood this. Had he not understood this, why would he say ‘another ark of the Lord would not be permitted to be made.’ “And when you increase and are fertile in the land, in those days — declares the LORD — men shall no longer speak of the Ark of the Covenant of the LORD, nor shall it come to mind. They shall not mention it, or miss it, or make another (Jer 3:16 TNK).” The question remains to be asked, how could the Word fulfill the word? The Law (Word of the Lord) would be fulfilled by the “Bur-den.” The Word of the Lord God becomes flesh, meaning it descends from the line of David and becomes born.  The LORD did appear in the flesh to Abraham! Here, in the chapter of Genesis 18 the mystery of the Lord God’s WORD speaking in the flesh is disguised cleverly as an ANTHROPOMORPHIC APPEARANCE. It is not until later on that this question would be struggled with. The Jewish targums are the works of the Jewish religion of Judaism that came to wrestle with this perplexing issue of what is God’s WORD, NOT PHILOSOPHY OF LOGOS.

32 Moses said, “This is what the LORD has commanded: Let one omer of it be kept throughout the ages, in order that they may see the bread that I fed you in the wilderness when I brought you out from the land of Egypt.” (Exo 16:32 TNK)

3 He subjected you to the hardship of hunger and then gave you manna to eat, which neither you nor your fathers had ever known, in order to teach you that man does not live on bread alone, but that man may live on anything that the LORD decrees. (Deu 8:3 TNK)

1 The LORD appeared to him by the terebinths of Mamre; he was sitting at the entrance of the tent as the day grew hot. (Gen 18:1 TNK)

2 Looking up, he saw three men standing near him. As soon as he saw them, he ran from the entrance of the tent to greet them and, bowing to the ground, (Gen 18:2 TNK)

8 He took curds and milk and the calf that had been prepared and set these before them; and he waited on them under the tree as they ate. (Gen 18:8 TNK)

13 Then the LORD said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh, saying, ‘Shall I in truth bear a child, old as I am?’ (Gen 18:13 TNK)

17 Now the LORD had said, “Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, (Gen 18:17 TNK)

20 Then the LORD said, “The outrage of Sodom and Gomorrah is so great, and their sin so grave! (Gen 18:20 TNK) 

22 The men went on from there to Sodom, while Abraham remained standing before the LORD. (Gen 18:22 TNK)

23 Abraham came forward and said, “Will You sweep away the innocent along with the guilty?
24 What if there should be fifty innocent within the city; will You then wipe out the place and not forgive it for the sake of the innocent fifty who are in it?
25 Far be it from You to do such a thing, to bring death upon the innocent as well as the guilty, so that innocent and guilty fare alike. Far be it from You! Shall not the Judge of all the earth deal justly?”
26 And the LORD answered, “If I find within the city of Sodom fifty innocent ones, I will forgive the whole place for their sake.”
27 Abraham spoke up, saying, “Here I venture to speak to my Lord, I who am but dust and ashes:
28 What if the fifty innocent should lack five? Will You destroy the whole city for want of the five?” And He answered, “I will not destroy if I find forty-five there.”
29 But he spoke to Him again, and said, “What if forty should be found there?” And He answered, “I will not do it, for the sake of the forty.”
30 And he said, “Let not my Lord be angry if I go on: What if thirty should be found there?” And He answered, “I will not do it if I find thirty there.”
31 And he said, “I venture again to speak to my Lord: What if twenty should be found there?” And He answered, “I will not destroy, for the sake of the twenty.”
32 And he said, “Let not my Lord be angry if I speak but this last time: What if ten should be found there?” And He answered, “I will not destroy, for the sake of the ten.”
33 When the LORD had finished speaking to Abraham, He departed; and Abraham returned to his place.
(Gen 18:23-33 TNK)

20 Then the LORD said, “The outrage of Sodom and Gomorrah is so great, and their sin so grave! 
21 I will go down to see whether they have acted altogether according to the outcry that has reached Me; if not, I will take note.” (Gen 18:20-21 TNK) 

The Word of the Lord was in a human tent of flesh. It is so plain to see in the above verses. They are highlighted for you to immediately see them. It is in all fairness that I presented the above passage of scripture before presenting the quoted words of Philo regarding his understanding of the Logos. You may be asking by now how can the Lord God speak in HIS WORD and speak in the FLESH at the same time? This is certainly a mystery. However, let us not forget that everything that the Lord God made had a divine blue print. This simply means that it was patterned after the heavenly image. The Lord God’s appearance in the flesh above is the heavenly image of man. The Lord God does not want man to corrupt the image of man, his own image that was made in the heavenly image of the Word of the Lord God. See the verses below for the corresponding scriptures.

7 The words of the LORD are pure words, silver purged in an earthen crucible, refined sevenfold. (Psa 12:7 TNK)

3 For silver — the crucible; For gold — the furnace, And the LORD tests the mind. (Pro 17:3 TNK)3 For silver — the crucible; For gold — the furnace, And the LORD tests the mind. (Pro 17:3 TNK)

21 For silver — the crucible, for gold — the furnace, And a man is tested by his praise. (Pro 27:21 TNK)

18 O mortal, the House of Israel has become dross to Me; they are all copper, tin, iron, and lead. But in a crucible, the dross shall turn into silver. (Eze 22:18 TNK)

20 As silver, copper, iron, lead, and tin are gathered into a crucible to blow the fire upon them, so as to melt them, so will I gather you in My fierce anger and cast you into the fire and melt you. (Eze 22:20 TNK)

22 As silver is melted in a crucible, so shall you be melted in it. And you shall know that I the LORD have poured out My fury upon you. (Eze 22:22 TNK)

28 Now when everything has been subjected to the Son, then he will subject himself to God, who subjected everything to him; so that God may be everything in everyone. (1Co 15:28 CJB)

In 1 Corinthians chapter 15 verse 28 should not be isolated by itself. It must be put into proper context. There is no better, more fitting context, than that of the Word of the Lord God fulfilling the word of the Lord God in the divine blue print of the heavenly body that the earthly body was patterned after. The idea of the Memra is that of divine patent protection. We were made in His image. It is in my opinion based on sound biblical doctrine of the Memra. IT IS DIVINE COPYRIGHT PROTECTION. It may be in small print, that is, hidden in plain sight, but it is, none the less in The Holy Scriptures. While it is true that philosophy of the Logos found its way into Jewish culture, through the work of Philo, for instance, the philosophy of the Logos has a second, NOT FIRST, and later influence on Jewish thought. There are some examples of the work of Philo on the Divine Word provided below from De mutatione nominum (MUT), De somniis (Som), De Abrahamo (ABR), De specialibus legibus (Spe), De Quaestiones in Genesim (Qge).

114 and they having escaped the attack of the enemies of intellect who admire only the external appendages, like people in tragedies, go no longer to Jother but to Raguel, for they have abandoned all connection with pride, and have connected themselves with lawful persuasion, choosing to become a portion of the sacred flock, of which the divine word is the leader, as his name shows, for it signifies the pastoral care of God. (MUT 1:114 PHE)

116 therefore the mind which has had the royal shepherd, the divine word, for its instructor, will very naturally ask of his seven daughters, “Why is it that you have contended with such great haste to come hither this day?” [Exodus ii. 18] for formerly, when you met with the objects of the outward sense, remaining a long time outside, you were a long time in returning again by reason of the manner in which you were allured by them, but now I do not know what it is that has happened to you, but you are speedy in your return, contrary to your usual custom. (MUT 1:116 PHE)

62 Now place is considered in three ways: firstly, as a situation filled by a body; secondly, as the divine word which God himself has filled wholly and entirely with incorporeal powers; for says the scripture, “I have seen the place in which the God of Israel stood,” [Exodus xxiv. 10] in which alone he permitted his prophet to perform sacrifice to him, forbidding him to do so in other places. For he is ordered to go up into the place which the Lord God shall choose, and there to sacrifice burnt offerings and sacrifices for salvation, and to bring other victims also without spot. (Som 1:62 PHE)

66 But he who was conducted by wisdom comes to the former place, having found that the main part and end of propitiation is the divine word, in which he who is fixed does not as yet attain to such a height as to penetrate to the essence of God, but sees him afar off; or, rather, I should say, he is not able even to behold him afar off, but he only discerns this fact, that God is at a distance from every creature, and that any comprehension of him is removed to a great distance from all human intellect. (Som 1:66 PHE)

68 XII. These things, then, being defined as a necessary preliminary, when the practiser of virtue comes to Charran, the outward sense, he does not “meet” the place, nor that place either which is filled by a mortal body; for all those who are born of the dust, and who occupy any place whatever, and who do of necessity fill some position, partake of that; nor the third and most excellent kind of place, of which it was scarcely possible for that man to form an idea who made his abode at the well which was entitled the “well of the oath,” where the self-taught race, Isaac, abides, who never abandons his faith in God and his invisible comprehension of him, but who keeps to the intermediate divine word, which affords him the best suggestions, and teaches him everything which is suitable to the times. (Som 1:68 PHE)

70 Very properly, therefore, when he has arrived at the external sense, he is represented no longer as meeting God, but only the divine word, just as his grandfather Abraham, the model of wisdom, did; for the scripture tells us, “The Lord departed when he had finished conversing with Abraham, and Abraham returned to his place.” [Genesis xviii. 33.] From which expression it is inferred, that he also met with the sacred words from which God, the father of the universe, had previously departed, no longer displaying visions from himself but only those which proceed from his subordinate powers. (Som 1:70 PHE)

71 And it is with exceeding beauty and propriety that it is said, not that he came to the place, but that he met the place: for to come is voluntary, but to meet is very often involuntary; so that the divine Word appearing on a sudden, supplies an unexpected joy, greater than could have been hoped, inasmuch as it is about to travel in company with the solitary soul; for Moses also “brings forward the people to a meeting with God,” [Exodus xix. 17] well knowing that he comes invisibly towards those souls who have a longing to meet with him. (Som 1:71 PHE)

85 XV. But according to the third signification, when he speaks of the sun, he means the divine word, the model of that sun which moves about through the heaven, as has been said before, and with respect to which it is said, “The sun went forth upon the earth, and Lot entered into Segor, and the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah brimstone and fire.” [Genesis xix. 23.] (Som 1:85 PHE)

118 But some persons – supposing that what is meant here by the figurative expression of the sun is the external sense and the mind, which are looked upon as the things which have the power of judging; and that what is meant by place is the divine word – understand the allegory in this manner: the practiser of virtue met with the divine word, after the mortal and human light had set; (Som 1:118 PHE)

119 for as long as the mind thinks that it attains to a firm comprehension of the objects of intellect, and the outward sense conceives that it has a similar understanding of its appropriate objects, and that it dwells amid sublime objects, the divine word stands aloof at a distance; but when each of these comes to confess its own weakness, and sets in a manner while availing itself of concealment, then immediately the right reason of a soul well-practised in virtue comes in a welcome manner to their assistance, when they have begun to despair of their own strength, and await the aid which is invisibly coming to them from without. (Som 1:119 PHE)

190 You see here, that the divine word speaks of dreams as sent from God; including in this statement not those only which appear through the agency of the chief cause itself, but those also which are seen through the operation of his interpreters and attendant angels, who are thought by the father who created them to be worthy of a divine and blessed lot: (Som 1:190 PHE)

215 For there are, as it seems, two temples belonging to God; one being this world, in which the high priest is the divine word, his own first-born son. The other is the rational soul, the priest of which is the real true man, the copy of whom, perceptible to the senses, is he who performs his paternal vows and sacrifices, to whom it is enjoined to put on the aforesaid tunic, the representation of the universal heaven, in order that the world may join with the man in offering sacrifice, and that the man may likewise co-operate with the universe. (Som 1:215 PHE)

242 and by the name Eden he means the wisdom of the living God, and the interpretation of the name Eden is “delight,” because I imagine wisdom is the delight of God, and God is the delight of wisdom, as it is said also in the Psalms, “Delight thou in the Lord.” [Psalm xxxvi. 4.] And the divine word, like a river, flows forth from wisdom as from a spring, in order to irrigate and fertilize the celestial and heavenly shoots and plants of such souls as love virtue, as if they were a paradise. (Som 2:242 PHE)

245 XXXVIII. Accordingly, one of the followers of Moses, having compared this speech to a river, has said in the Psalms, “The river of God was filled with water;” [Psalm lxv. 10] and it is absurd to give such a title to any of the rivers which flow upon the earth. But as it seems the psalmist is here speaking of the divine word, which is full of the streams of wisdom, and which has no part of itself empty or desolate, or rather, as some one has said, which is diffused everywhere over the universe, and is raised up on high, on account of the continued and incessant rapidity of that ever-flowing spring. (Som 2:245 PHE)

247 For, in good truth, the continual stream of the divine word, being borne on incessantly with rapidity and regularity, is diffused universally over everything, giving joy to all. (Som 2:247 PHE)

244 Therefore the nine sovereignties of the four passions and the five outward senses are both perishable themselves and also the causes of mortality. But the truly sacred and divine word, which uses the virtues as a starting place, being placed in the number ten, that perfect number, when it descends into the contest and exerts that more vigorous power which it has in accordance with God, subdues by main force all the aforesaid powers. (ABR 1:244 PHE)

41 VI. Which that interpreter of the divine word, Moses, the man most beloved by God, having a regard to, besought God and said, “Show me thyself” — all but urging him, and crying out in loud and distinct words — “that thou hast a real being and existence the whole world is my teacher, assuring me of the fact and instructing me as a son might of the existence of his father, or the work of the existence of the workman. But, though I am very desirous to know what thou art as to thy essence, I can find no one who is able to explain to me anything relating to this branch of learning in any part of the universe whatever. (Spe 1:41 PHE)

62 Why is it that he speaks as if of some other god, saying that he made man after the image of God, and not that he made him after his own image? [Genesis 9:6]. 62. Very appropriately and without any falsehood was this oracular sentence uttered by God, for no mortal thing could have been formed on the similitude of the supreme Father of the universe, but only after the pattern of the second deity, who is the Word of the supreme Being; since it is fitting that the rational soul of man should bear before it the type of the divine Word; since in his first Word God is superior to the most rational possible nature. But he who is superior to the Word holds his rank in a better and most singular pre-eminence, and how could the creature possibly exhibit a likeness of him in himself? Nevertheless he also wished to intimate this fact, that God does rightly and correctly require vengeance, in order to the defense of virtuous and consistent men, because such bear in themselves a familiar acquaintance with his Word, of which the human mind is the similitude and form. (Qge 2:62 PHE)

15 What is the meaning of the expression, “Behold there was a smoking furnace and torches of fires, which passed through the middle of those divisions?” [Genesis 15:18]. 15. The literal meaning of the statement is plain, for the fountain or root of the divine word will have the victims consumed, not by that fire which is given for our use, but by that which descends from above, out of heaven, in order that the purity of the essence of heaven may bear witness to the sanctity of the victims. But if we regard the inward meaning of the words, all things which are done beneath the moon are here compared to a smoking furnace, on account of the vapor which rises up out of the earth and water. As also the divisions of nature are, as has been already shown, every portion of the world being divided into two parts; and by these there are kindled, as it were, torches of fire, being powers which are more rapid in motion and more efficacious, being burning, in truth, like divine fiery discourses, at one time keeping the whole universe in a state of integrity reciprocally with themselves, and at another cleansing away the superfluous darkness. But the following interpretation may also be given with propriety in a more familiar manner. Human life is like unto a smoking furnace, because it has not a pure fire and an unalloyed brilliancy, but a great deal of smoke, smoking darkly through the flame, which causes mist and darkness, and an obscuration, not of the body but of the soul, so that this last cannot discern things clearly, until God the redeemer commands the heavenly lamps to arise, I mean those more pure and more holy radiations which unite those parts previously divided in two, on the right hand and on the left, and, at the same time, illuminate them, being the causes of harmony and of lucid clearness. (Qge 3:15 PHE)

27 What is the meaning of the statement, “The angel of the Lord found her sitting by a fountain of water in the desert in the way to Sur?” [Genesis 16:7]. 27. All these statements are as it were symbols by which the sacred writer indicates that the well-instructed soul, which is the possession of virtue, is nevertheless not yet able to discern the beauty of her mistress. They are, I say, symbols; I mean the statements that she was found, and that she was found by an angel in the desert, and in no other way than that leading to Sur. However we must begin with what is plain. Now the too subtle sophist and the real lover of disputations is commonly unable to be detected by reason of his artifices and sophistical persuasions, with which he is accustomed to deceive and perplex men. But he who, being free from bad habits, has only an eager desire for obtaining instruction by the course of encyclical training, although he is difficult to be detected, is yet not altogether incapable of being so; for perdition is near at hand to him who cannot be detected, but safety to him who can be discovered, especially when he is sought for and found by a more holy and more excellent spirit. And who is more holy and more excellent than the angel of the Lord? For it is to him that it has been entrusted to seek out the erring soul, the soul which, on account of its presumed erudition, is continually ignorant of her whom it ought to respect, but still she could be susceptible of correction and amendment; for which object she was sought out. Nor was she found imperfect, but ready to the hand, since the soul was found which had fled from perfect virtue, not being able to submit to discipline. But the third symbol takes place after she is found and after the discovery has been made by an angel, namely, in the fact of her being found by a fountain, that is to say, by nature; for it is nature which bestows on clever people abilities in proportion to the industry of each individual, effacing unseasonable learning, which is no learning at all: and praise is implied in the very place in which the soul is found, which is thirsting after genius and after its placid law, wishing to draw water while in the society of those who drink wine; for thus it associates with those who feed upon and are delighted with the exercise of proper training, where nature itself affords sufficient nourishment, namely, education and instruction as if from a fountain. The fourth symbol is contained in the fact that the discovery took place in the desert; since difficulty coming over each of the outward senses, together with an influx of each separate desire, represses the mind, and does not permit it to drink pure water: but when it cannot avoid these things as in the desert, it acquiesces, and, abandoning the thoughts which agitated and perplexed it, it becomes convalescent, so as to receive a hope not only of life, but even of eternal life. The fifth symbol is contained in the fact that she was found in the way; for dispositions which are incorrigible are led by devious paths; but that one which can be changed for the better, lo! it proceeds along the road which leads to virtue, and that road is like a fortified wall and guardian to the souls which are capable of being saved, for Sur means a fortified wall. Do you not see, then, that the whole is a symbolical, or indeed a legitimate, figure of an improving soul? And, in fact, the soul which is improving does not perish as one which is wholly foolish does; for if the divine word be found by it, then again it seeks it; and he who is not pure and clean in his habits and disposition, flees from the divine word; but yet he has a fountain of water in which he washes away his vices and wickednesses, drawing from thence the fertility of the law. Besides this, it loves the desert, to which it has fled from its vices and wickednesses, and when it has once beheld the way of virtue it returns from the devious paths of wickedness. And all these things are fortified walls and bulwarks to it, so as to protect it from being ever injured by any words or circumstances which attack it, and from suffering any damage. (Qge 3:27 PHE)

28 Why did the angel say to her, “Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, whence comest thou, and whither goest thou?” [Genesis 16:8]. 28. The plain letter of the question requires no explanation, for it is exceedingly clear; but with reference to the inner meaning contained in it, there is some asperity expressed; since the divine word is full of instruction, and is a physician of the infirmity of the soul. Therefore the angel says to her, “Whence comest thou?” knowest thou not what good thou has abandoned? Art thou not altogether lame and blind? For thou dost not see at all; and though endowed with the outward senses, dost not feel, and dost not appear to me to have any portion whatever of intellect, as if thou wert quite senseless. But “whither goest thou?” From what excellence to what misery? Why have you so erred as to cast away the blessings which you had in your power, and to pursue good things which are more remote? Do not, do not, I say, act thus; but, quitting your insane impetuosity, go back again, and return into the same way as before, looking upon wisdom as thy mistress, her whom you had before as your governess and directress in all the things which you did. (Qge 3:28 PHE)

It is my intention to bring the above verses from the philosophy of the Logos, according to the work of Philo in order to enlighten and empower the reader with regard to the influence that the philosophy of the Logos had on Jewish culture and later on in the Gospel of John and epistles of John. You can form your own conclusions based on Philo’s work to see how influenced John was with regard to his work. Be a Berean and check for yourself. See the following verse: “Now the people here were of nobler character than the ones in Thessalonica; they eagerly welcomed the message, checking the Tanakh every day to see if the things Sha’ul was saying were true (Act 17:11 CJB).” See the following link: (http://beaberean.com/research-judaism/).

WORKS CITED

Bushell, Michael S., Michael D. Tan, and Glenn L. Weaver. BibleWorks. 8th ed. Norfolk: BibleWorks, LLC., 2008. BibleWorks. v.8.

62a Chicago Bibliography Entries

Borgen, Peder, Kåre Fuglseth, and Roald Skarsten. The Philo Concordance Database in Greek (PHI). n.p.: n.p., 2005. BibleWorks, v.8.

 

62a Chicago Bibliography Entries

Etheridge, J. W. Targum Onkelos on the Pentateuch (English) (OKE). London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1862. BibleWorks, v.8.62a Chicago Bibliography Entries

Borgen, Peder, Kåre Fuglseth, and Roald Skarsten. The Philo Concordance Database in Greek with Lemmatization and Morphological Tagging with Corrections (PHM). Edited by Jean-Noel Aletti and Andrzej Gieniusz. n.p.: n.p., 2007. BibleWorks, v.8.

62a Chicago Bibliography Entries

Etheridge, J. W. Targum Pseudo Jonathan on the Pentateuch (English) (PJE). London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1862. BibleWorks, v.8.

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Holladay, William L. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament: Based upon the Lexical Work of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner. Leiden: Brill, 2000. BibleWorks, v.8.

62a Chicago Bibliography Entries

Joüon, Paul, and T. Muraoka. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. 2nd ed. Subsidia Biblica 27. Roma: Editrice Pontificio Intituto Biblico, 2006. BibleWorks, v.8.

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Targumim (Aramaic Old Testament) (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon) (TAR). n.p.: Hebrew Union College. BibleWorks, v.8.

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Webster, Noah. The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments, in the Common Version, with Amendments of the language (WEB). n.p.: n.p., 1833. BibleWorks, v.8.

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Targumim Morphology (Aramaic Old Testament) (Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon) (TAM). n.p.: Hebrew Union College. BibleWorks, v.8.

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BibleWorks Timelines. Norfolk: BibleWorks, LLC. BibleWorks, v.8.

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